BKG

Permana, Enike Risty Sukma (2018) Karakterisasi Sifat Fisikokimia Tepung Labu Jepang (Kabocha) (Cucurbita Maxima L.) (Kajian Pengaruh Suhu Blanching, Dan Konsentrasi Perendaman Natrium Metabisulfit. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Labu jepang (kabocha) (Cucurbita maxima L.) merupakan labu yang mempunyai karakteristik mudah rusak dengan kandungan betakaroten yang tinggi. Salah satu upaya untuk memaksimalkan pemanfaatan labu jepang (kabocha) yang tinggi betakaroten adalah dengan mengolah menjadi tepung. Pengolahan tepung labu jepang (kabocha) yang kurang tepat menjadikan karakteristik tepung yang kurang sesuai seperti menggumpal, menurunnya kemampuan mengikat air dan warna yang kurang menarik sebagai indikasi banyaknya kerusakan pada betakaroten. Proses pretreatment blanching dan perendaman merupakan salah satu upaya untuk meminimalisir kemungkinan kerusakan yang dapat memperbaiki karakteristik tepung. Blanching mampu menginaktivasi enzim penyebab browning, dan suhu yang tepat akan meminimalisir kerusakan pada betakaroten. Sedangkan perendaman Natrium metabisulfit mampu mencegah terjadinya browning akibat enzim fenolase penyebab pencoklatan yang inaktif. Proses blanching dan perendaman Natrium metabisulfit juga berpengaruh terhadap karakteristik fisik dan kimia dikarenakan proses blanching mampu membuka pori-pori sedangkan perendaman Natrium metabisulfit mempu marusak dinding sel dan berpengaruh terhadap karakteristik fisik dan kimia tepung. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) faktorial menggunakan 2 faktor, dimana faktor I adalah suhu blanching terdiri dari 3 level yaitu suhu 600C, 800C dan tanpa blanching dan faktor II adalah konsentrasi perendaman Natrium metabisulfit dengan 3 level yaitu 0%, 0,1% dan 0,3%. Terdapat 9 kombinasi perlakuan dengan 3 kali ulangan sehingga diperoleh 27 percobaan. Data kemudian dianalisis secara statistik menggunakan analisa ragam (ANOVA). Apabila tidak terjadi interaksi antara kedua perlakuan maka dilakukan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT) dengan taraf 5%. Jika terdapat perbedaan nyata maka dilakukan uji lanjut DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) 5%. Pemilihan perlakuan terbaik menggunakan metode Zeleny Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan suhu blanching dan konsentrasi perendaman natrium metabisulfit berpengaruh nyata (α=5%) terhadap nilai kadar air, kadar protein, kadar pati, kadar abu, daya serap air, viskositas panas, viskositas holding, viskositas dingin, swelling power, kelarutan, tingkat kemerahan dan tingkat kekuningan. Perlakuan terbaik tepung labu jepang (kabocha) dengan metode Zeleny pada tepung perlakuan blanching suhu 800C dan perendaman Na-metabisufit 0% dengan nilai masing-masing parameter sebagai berikut: kadar air 9,59%; kadar abu 6,27%; kadar serat kasar 28,11%; kadar lemak 4,49%; kadar pati 27,73; kadar protein 16,68%; total karoten 140,93 mg/100g; daya serap air 6,07 ml/g; viskositas panas 1553,33 cp; viskositas holding 2206,67 cp; viskositas dingin 3386,67 cp; swelling power 27,23 g/g; kelarutan 2,11%; warna kecerahan L 71,52; warna kemerahan a 11,98; warna kekuningan b 40,84.

English Abstract

Japanese pumpkin (kabocha) (Cucurbita maxima L.) is a pumpkin that has characteristics of perishability with high beta-carotene content. One effort to maximize the use of Japanese pumpkin (kabocha) which is high in beta-carotene is to process it into flour. The improper processing of Japanese pumpkin flour (kabocha) makes the characteristics of flour less suitable such as clumping, decreased ability to bind water and less attractive colors as an indication of the amount of damage to beta-carotene. The process of pretreatment blanching and soaking is an effort to minimize the possibility of damage that can improve the characteristics of flour. Blanching is able to inactivate enzymes that cause browning, and the right temperature will minimize damage to beta-carotene. While soaking natrium metabisulfite is able to prevent browning due to phenolase enzymes that cause inactive browning. The process of blanching and soaking Natrium metabisulfite also affects the physical and chemical characteristics because the blanching process is able to open the pores while soaking Natrium metabisulfite can damage the cell wall and affect the physical and chemical characteristics of flour. The experimental design used was factorial randomized block design using 2 factors, in which factor I was the blanching temperature consisting of 3 levels, namely temperature 600C, 800C and without blanching and factor II was the concentration of soaking natrium metabisulfite with 3 levels of 0%, 0 , 1% and 0.3%. There were 9 combinations of treatments with 3 replications so that 27 trials were obtained. The data was then analyzed statistically using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). If there is no interaction between the two treatments then the Smallest Significant Difference Test is carried out with a level of 5%. If there are significant differences, then a further DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) test is 5%. Selection of the best treatment using the Zeleny method. The results showed that the blanching temperature treatment and soaking concentration natrium metabisulfite significantly (α = 5%) on the value of water content, protein content, starch content, ash content, water absorption, heat viscosity, holding viscosity, cold viscosity, swelling power, solubility, redness and yellowness level. The best treatment of Japanese pumpkin flour (kabocha) by Zeleny method, namely the treatment of flour blanching temperature of 800C and soaking Na-metabisufit 0% with the value of each parameter as follows: water content of 9.59%; ash content 6.27%; crude fiber content 28.11%; 4.49% fat content; starch content 27.73; protein content of 16.68%; total carotene 140.93 mg / 100g; water absorption of 6.07 ml / g; heat viscosity 1553.33 cp; holding viscosity is 2206.67 cp; cold viscosity 3386.67 cp; swelling power 27.23 g / g; solubility of 2.11%; brightness color L 71.52; redness color a 11.98; yellowness color b 40.84.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FTP/2018/527/051810617
Uncontrolled Keywords: Labu Jepang, Tepung Labu Jepang, Blanching, Natrium Metabisulfit,/ Japanese Pumpkin, Japanese Pumpkin Flour, Blanching, Natrium Metabisulfite
Subjects: 500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 583 Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons) > 583.6 Dilleniidae > 583.63 Cucurbitales
Divisions: Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian > Teknologi Hasil Pertanian
Depositing User: Endang Susworini
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/165043
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Enike Risty Sukma Permana.pdf
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