BKG

Ahsan, Aji Maulana (2018) Analisa Kebutuhan Energi PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) Sebagai Perlakuan Pendahuluan Serta Pengaruhnya Terhadap Rendemen Dan Kualitas Ekstrak Tanin Biji Pinang (Areca Catechu L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Pinang merupakan tanaman jenis palma yang dapat tumbuh secara alami dan tersebar luas di Indonesia. Salah satu bagian dari tanaman pinang yang sering dimanfaatkan ialah bagian biji. Biji pinang biasa digunakan dalam pengobatan berbagai penyakit. Di Indonesia, biji pinang biasa dikonsumsi dengan cara dikunyah dengan campuran daun sirih. Biji pinang tergolong sebagai sumber antioksidan karena memiliki berbagai metabolit sekunder seperti tanin, flavonoid, alkaloid, dan terpenoid. Kandungan antioksidan pada biji pinang dapat diperoleh melalui proses ekstraksi. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian terdahulu, rendemen yang dihasilkan dari ekstraksi biji pinang masih terbilang rendah yakni 0,982% dan 2,522% untuk biji pinang matang dan mentah. Sehingga perlu dilakukan perlakuan pendahuluan terhadap bahan agar rendemen meningkat. Perlakuan pendahuluan yang dapat dilakukan yaitu dengan menerapkan metode kejut listrik atau Pulsed Electric Field (PEF). Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh waktu paparan PEF, tegangan PEF, dan energi masukan spesifik PEF terhadap rendemen dan kualitas ekstrak tanin biji pinang. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan percobaan dua faktor. Faktor pertama tegangan PEF dengan 3 level (3kV, 4 kV, dan 5kV). Faktor kedua waktu PEF dengan 3 level (3 menit, 5 menit, dan 7 menit). Percobaan dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali ulangan sehingga terdapat 27 satuan percobaan. Analisa meliputi rendemen, kadar air, aktivitas antioksidan, kualitatif tanin, kadar tanin, energi masukan spesifik PEF, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), dan FTIR (Fourier Transform viii Infra Red). Pengolahan dan analisis data dilakukan menggunakan analisis regresi linier sederhana dan berganda dengan software SPSS 17. Perlakuan terbaik dipilih menggunakan metode Multiple Atribute. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin lama waktu PEF dan semakin besar tegangan PEF maka semakin besar energi masukan spesifik PEF yang dihasilkan dengan range 1,92 – 12,44 kJ/cm3. Besar energi masukan spesifik PEF tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap rendemen, kadar air, IC50, dan kadar tanin. Tegangan PEF (T) dan waktu PEF (W) baik masing-masing maupun secara bersama-sama menunjukkan tidak ada pengaruh signifikan terhadap rendemen, kadar air, dan kadar tanin. Disamping itu, waktu PEF (W) memberikan pengaruh signifikan terhadap nilai IC50 sedangkan tegangan PEF (T) secara parsial dan simultan tidak. Perlakuan terbaik adalah perlakuan T1W2 (Tegangan PEF 3 kV dan waktu PEF 5 menit) dengan besar energi masukan spesifik 3,20 kJ/cm3, rendemen 6,38%, kadar air 4,52%, IC50 172,78 ppm, dan kadar tanin 571,34 mg GAE/g. Perlakuan terbaik dan kontrol samasama menunjukan hasil positif pada uji kualitatif tanin. Komponen gugus fungsi penyusun pada perlakuan terbaik dan kontrol menunjukan hasil yang sama dengan komponen gugus fungsi standar pada tanin terkondensasi berdasarkan hasil FTIR. Diketahui bahwa perlakuan terbaik lebih baik dari pada perlakuan kontrol pada semua karakterisasi. Dibanding kontrol, perlakuan terbaik memberikan peningkatan pada rendemen dan kadar tanin sebesar 34,88% dan 14,14% serta memberikan penurunan pada kadar air dan nilai IC50 sebesar 64,30% dan 5,58%.

English Abstract

Pinang is a type of palm plant that can naturally grow and spread widely in Indonesia. One of the pinang plant part hat often used is the seed. The seed are commonly used for treatment of various diseases. In Indonesia, pinang seed usually consumed by chewing with the betel leaf. Pinang seed is generally classified as a source of antioxidant agents because it has various secondary metabolites such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids that act as antioxidant. The content of antioxidants in pinang seed can be obtained through extraction process. Based on the results of previous research, the yield from the extraction of pinang seeds were still low, were about 0.982% and 2.522% for ripe and raw seeds. Therefore, it is necessary to do pretreatment of the material to increase the yield of the extract. Pretreatment that can be done is by applying electric shock method or Pulsed Electric Field. This study was conducted to determine the effect of PEF exposure time, PEF voltage, and PEF specific input energy on yield and tannin quality of pinang seed extract. This study used two-factor experimental design as the research method. The first factor was the PEF voltage with 3 levels i.e. 3kV, 4kV, and 5kV. The second factor was PEF exposure time with 3 levels i.e. 3 minutes, 5 minutes, and 7 minutes. The experiment was conducted 3 replications, so there were 27 experimental units. Within this study carried out the analysis of yield, moisture content, antioxidant activity, qualitative tannins, tannin content, PEF specific input energy, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red). Data processing and analysis was done using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS x 17 software. The best treatment was chosen using Multiple Attribute method. The results showed that the longer PEF exposure time and the greater PEF voltage will generate greater PEF specific input energy about 1.92 - 12.44 kJ/cm3. The PEF specific input energies did not significantly affect the yield, moisture content, IC50, and tannin content. The PEF voltage (T) and PEF exposure time (W) either individually or simultaneously showed no significant effect on yield, moisture content, and tannin content. Besides, the PEF time (W) variable gives a significant effect on the IC50 value, while the PEF voltage (T) partially and simultaneously not . The best treatment was T1W2 treatment (PEF voltage of 3 kV and 5 minute PEF exposure time) with specific input energy of 3.20 kJ / cm3, yield of 6.38%, water content of 4.52%, IC50 172,78 ppm, and tannin content of 571.34 mg GAE / g. The best treatment and controls both showed positive results on the tannin qualitative test. The constituent functional group component of the best treatment and controls show the same result as the standard functional group component of the condensed tannins based on the FTIR results. It is known that the best treatment is better than the control treatment on all the characterizations. Compared to the control, the best treatment gives improvement on yield and tannin content around 34,88% and 14,14%, while decline on moisture content and IC50 value around 64,30% and 5,58%.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FTP/2018/348/051809097
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aktivitas Antioksidan, Biji Pinang, Ekstraksi, PEF, Tanin,/ Antioxidant Activity, Extraction, PEF, Pinang seed, Tannin
Subjects: 500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 584 Liliopsida (Monocotyledons) > 584.5 Arecidae
Divisions: Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian > Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Depositing User: Endang Susworini
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/164744
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