BKG

Hasyim, MuhammadAsmuni (2012) Komposisi Serangga yang Berpotensi sebagai Polinator Bunga Apel dan Ketertarikannya terhadap Tumbuhan Liar di Sekitar Kebun Apel Desa Bumiaji Kota Batu. Magister thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Tanaman apel ( Malus sylvestris Mill) merupakan salah satu tanaman yang berperan penting bagi pemenuhan gizi masyarakat dan pendapatan petani. Pohon apel merupakan salah satu jenis pohon yang tidak dapat melakukan penyerbukan sendiri. Bunga apel tergantung pada serangga penyerbuk. Vegetasi non crop menjadi tempat berlindung dan berkembang biak bagi beberapa serangga khususnya serangga polinator. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi harian dan musiman serta menganalisis struktur komunitas serangga polinator yang berkunjung ke pohon apel dan tumbuhan liar di sekitarnya dan mengetahui ketertarikan serangga polinator terhadap tumbuhan liar disekitar kebun apel di Desa Bumiaji Kota Batu. Pengamatan serangga polinator di amati secara visual. Pengukuran faktor lingkungan (suhu, kelembaban dan cahaya). Analisis data perbandingan struktur komunitas serangga polinator bunga apel dan tumbuhan liar disekitar kebun apel didapatkan dari nilai penting dan diversitas ( Shannon-Wiener ). Variasi harian dan musiman serangga polinator bunga apel dilakukan dengan membandingkan pada musim bunga dan musim buah. Parameter yang dibandingkan diversitas, kelimpahan dan komposisi. Diversitas dan kelimpahan dibandingkan dengan uji anova, sedangkan komposisi dibandingkan dengan IBC ( Indeks Bray Curtis ). Pola kunjungan harian serangga polinator bunga apel dianalisis dengan membandingkan rata-rata kunjungan pada periode I, II, III, dan IV. Serangga polinator yang dikoleksi pada perkebunan apel musim bunga lebih tinggi yakni (218 individu) dari pada musim buah (43 individu). Nilai indeks keanekaragaman serangga polinator pada musim bunga lebih tinggi (1,53) di bandingkan musim buah (1,47), sedangkan keanekaragaman pada tumbuhan liar tertinggi pada jenis Commelina difussa (1,31) di bandingkan dengan yang lainnya. Kelimpahan serangga polinator antar musim bunga dan buah, jenis tumbuhan liar berbeda nyata dengan Signifikansi 0.05. Kesamaan antara musim bunga dan buah dengan indeks Bray Curtis sebesar 0.50%, sedangkan kesamaan antara pohon apel dengan tumbuhan liar dari jenis Bidens pilosa sebesar (0,26) pada musim bunga dan (0,48) pada musim buah. Struktur komunitas serangga polinator pada perkebunan apel didominasi dari genus Allagopta (55,54) dan Apis (45,94), sedangkan pada musim buah dari genus Copestylum (63,34) dan Allagopta (51,71) . Analisis faktor lingkungan suhu, kelembaban dan intensitas cahaya terhadap kelimpahan serangga polinator didapatkan korelasi yang positif dengan nilai R-square yakni 38,8 %. Rekomendasi kepada petani yakni dengan menjaga diversitas tumbuhan liar di sekitar kebun apel untuk menjaga diversitas bagi serangga polinator.

English Abstract

Apple plant ( Malus sylvestris Mill ) is one of important plants to fulfill of people nutrition and income of farmers. This plant is a type of non-self pollinating tree. Apple flowers depend on insect pollinator to aid for pollinating ir flower organ. Non-crop vegetation became a refuge and breeding ground for some insects, particularly insect pollinators. This study aims to determine daily and seasonal variations as well as analyzing community structure of insect pollinators in apple trees and wild plants around and find out preference in insect pollinators to those wild plants in Bumiaji, Batu city. Observations on insect pollinators were done visually. Were conducted measurement of environmental factors (temperature, humidity and light) test conducted after onsect polinator visual observation. Comparative data analysis of insect community structure and plant pollinators of wild flowers around apple orchard obtained from abundance and diversity (Shannon-Wiener). Daily and seasonal variation of insect pollinators of apples was done by comparing rates in flowering and fruiting seasons. Parameters in two seasons were compared to ir diversity, abundance and composition levels. Diversity and abundance were compared by using ANOVA test, followed by IBC composition test (Bray Curtis Index). Were patterns of daily visits of insect pollinators to flowers analyzed by comparing frequency of visiting in period range of time I, II, III, and IV. Insect pollinators of apple flower collected in flowering plantation were higher (218 individuals) than thoose in fruiting seasons (43 individuals). Diversity value of insect pollinators in flowering was higher (1.53) compared to those in fruiting season (1.47), whereas highest diversity in wild plants was found in Commelina difussa (1.31). Abundance of insect pollinators of flowers and fruits between seasons, wild plant species were significantly different with significance P 0.05. similarity of insect pollinator compositions between flowering and fruiting seasons with Bray Curtis index was 0.50%, while similarity between wild plant of species of Bidens pilosa and apple tree in flowering season was 0.26 and in fruiting season was 0.48. community structure of insect pollinators in apple in flowering season dominated by Allagopta (55.54) and Apis (45.94), while that in fruiting season were dominated by Copestylum (63.34) and Allagopta (51.71). Analysis of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and light intensity on abundance of insect pollinators showed a positive to correlation with R-square value of 38.8%. This research Recommend to farmers maintain diversity of wild plants in orchard to conserve diversity of insect pollinators.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Magister)
Identification Number: TES/639.975 7/HAS/k/041200764
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 639 Hunting, fishing & conservation > 639.9 Conservation of biological resources
Divisions: S2 / S3 > Magister Matematika, Fakultas MIPA
Depositing User: Endro Setyobudi
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/159101
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