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Fatimah, Nikmatul (2018) Respon Seleksi Massa Pada Dua Populasi Tanaman Bayam Cabut (Amaranthus Tricolor L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Bayam cabut (Amaranthus tricolor L.) ialah salah satu jenis tanaman sayur daerah tropis di Indonesia. Bayam cabut terdiri dari bayam hijau dan bayam merah. Masyarakat Indonesia pada umumnya hanya mengenal bayam hijau, tidak seperti bayam merah yang belum dikenal luas oleh masyarakat. Tanaman bayam merah memiliki kandungan gizi yang bermanfaat bagi tubuh yaitu mengandung vitamin A, B, dan C, kalsium, fosfor, dan besi. Sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai obat tradisional bagi penderita kanker usus, kencing manis, dan kurang darah (Rummiper dkk, 2014). Produksi bayam merah di Indonesia masih sangat minim, menurut BPS (2017), produksi bayam merah menurun dari tahun 2011 hingga 2014 yakni dari 160.513 ton hingga 134.166 ton. Pada tahun 2015 meningkat menjadi 150.093 ton. Banyaknya manfaat yang diperoleh dari bayam merah ini mengindikasi potensi yang harus dikembangkan lebih lanjut untuk meningkatkan produksi tanaman. Salah satunya melalui perakitan varietas dengan langkah awal yaitu menggunakan program seleksi massa. Seleksi massa adalah metode seleksi dengan memilih tanaman yang berpenampilan karakter (fenotipe) sesuai yang diinginkan dan menghilangkan tanaman kurang baik dari populasi hasil random mating. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu menduga respon seleksi massa pada karakter komponen hasil dan hasil bayam cabut. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Maret sampai dengan Mei 2018. Lokasi penelitian di Kebun Percobaan Jatimulyo, Kec. Lowokwaru, Malang, dengan ketinggian 460 mdpl, rata-rata suhu 20-28oC dan curah hujan sekitar 2,71 mm. Metode penelitian menggunakan pengamatan single plant. Terdapat 1000 tanaman dengan jarak 20x20 cm yang terdiri dari dua populasi. Benih yang digunakan berasal dari hasil penelitian sebelumnya. Seleksi yang akan dilakukan berdasarkan karakter tinggi tanaman, umur berbunga, dan warna daun. Alat yang akan digunakan yaitu cangkul, meteran, timbangan analitik, jangka sorong, penggaris, pantnone colour guide, kamera digital, kertas amplop, baki, kertas label, alat tulis, dan peralatan lain penunjang penelitian. Bahan yang digunakan yaitu dua populasi benih bayam (UB 2 dan UB 3) pupuk kandang, kompos, dan NPK. Parameter kuantitatif yang diamati yaitu tinggi tanaman (cm), jumlah daun (helai), diameter batang utama (cm), umur berbunga (hari), umur panen (hari), bobot segar per tanaman (g), jumlah malai per tanaman, dimeter malai (cm), total panjang malai (cm), bobot biji per tanaman (g), bobot 100 biji (g). Sedangkan parameter kualitatf yaitu bentuk daun, warna daun, warna batang, warna malai, warna biji, dan tipe kelamin. Analisis data karakter komponen hasil dan hasil dilakukan dengan menghitung kisaran rerata, ragam, simpangan baku, koefisien keragaman fenotipe, dan respon seleksi. Sedangkan hasil pengamatan kualitatif disajikan secara deskriptif (menampilkan gambar). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanaman bayam populasi UB 2 dan UB 3 menunjukkan nilai respon seleksi yang berbeda pada karakter v komponen hasil dan hasilnya. Nilai respon seleksi pada beberapa karakter populasi UB 2 lebih besar dari populasi UB 3 seperti, nilai respon seleksi massa tinggi tanaman populasi UB 2 sebesar 1.91 sedangkan populasi UB 3 hanya -0.16, nilai respon seleksi massa jumlah daun populasi UB 2 sebesar 0.3 sedangkan populasi UB 3 hanya 0.02, nilai respon seleksi massa diameter batang sebesar 0.06 sedangkan populasi UB 3 hanya 0.002, nilai respon seleksi massa bobot segar per tanaman populasi UB 2 sebesar 2.7 sedangkan populasi UB 3 hanya 2.24, nilai respon seleksi massa jumlah malai populasi UB 2 sebesar 0.63 sedangkan popualsi UB 3 hanya 0.03, nilai respon seleksi massa diameter malai populasi UB 2 sebesar 0.13 sedangkan populasi UB 3 hanya 0.05, dan nilai respon seleksi massa bobot 100 biji populasi UB 2 sebesar 0.003 sedangkan populasi UB 3 hanya 0.01. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa keragaman pada populasi UB 2 masih tinggi sedangkan pada populasi UB 3 sudah cukup seragam.

English Abstract

Spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) is one type of vegetable plant in the tropics in Indonesia. Amaranth spinach consists of green spinach and red spinach. Indonesian people generally only know green spinach, unlike red spinach which is not widely known by the public. Red spinach plants have a nutritional content that is beneficial to the body which contains vitamins A, B, and C, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. So that it can be used as a traditional medicine for patients with colon cancer, diabetes, and lack of blood (Rummiper et al, 2014). Red spinach production in Indonesia is still very minimal, according to BPS (2017), red spinach production declined from 2011 to 2014, from 160,513 tons to 134,166 tons. In 2015 it increased to 150,093 tons. The many benefits obtained from this red spinach indicate the potential that must be developed further to increase crop production. One of them is by assembling varieties with the initial step of using a mass selection program. Mass selection is a selection method by selecting plants that look like the character (phenotype) as desired and removing plants that are not good from the population of random mating. The purpose of this study is to predict the mass selection response to the character of the yield and spin yield components. This research was conducted in March to May 2018. The research location was in Jatimulyo Experimental Garden, Kec. Lowokwaru, Malang, with an altitude of 460 meters above sea level, an average temperature of 20-28oC and rainfall of around 2.71 mm. The research method uses single plant observation. There are 1000 plants with a distance of 20x20 cm consisting of two populations. The seeds used are derived from the results of previous studies. Selection will be done based on the character of the plant height, age of flowering, and leaf color. The tools that will be used are hoes, meters, analytic scales, calipers, rulers, pantnone color guides, digital cameras, envelope paper, trays, label paper, stationery, and other supporting research tools. The materials used are two populations of spinach seeds (UB 2 and UB 3) manure, compost, and NPK. Quantitative parameters observed were plant height (cm), number of leaves (strands), main stem diameter (cm), age of flowering (day), age of harvest (days), fresh weight per plant (g), number of panicles per plant, dimeter panicle (cm), total panicle length (cm), seed weight per plant (g), weight of 100 seeds (g). While the qualitative parameters are leaf shape, leaf color, stem color, panicle color, seed color, and sex type. Character data analysis of the results and results components is done by calculating the mean range, variance, standard deviation, coefficient of phenotype diversity, and selection response. While the qualitative observations are presented descriptively (displaying images). Based on the results of the study showed that the spinach plants of UB 2 and UB 3 population showed different selection response values in the characters of the results and results components. The value of the selection response on some vii characters of UB 2 population is greater than UB 3 population such as, the response value of high mass selection of UB 2 population plants is 1.91 while the UB 3 population is only -0.16, the response value of mass selection of UB 2 population leaves 0.3 while the population of UB 3 is only 0.02, the response value of stem diameter mass selection is 0.06 while UB 3 population is only 0.002, the response value of fresh weight mass selection per plant population of UB 2 is 2.7 while the UB 3 population is only 2.24, the response value of mass selection of UB2 population panicles is 0.63 whereas UB 3 popuality is only 0.03, the response value of panicle diameter of the panicle of UB 2 population is 0.13 while the UB 3 population is only 0.05, and the response value of mass weights of 100 seeds of UB 2 population is 0.003 while the UB 3 population is only 0.01. This shows that diversity in the UB 2 population is still high while in the UB 3 population is quite uniform.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/670/051810005
Uncontrolled Keywords: Seleksi Massa, Seleksi Tanaman, Tanaman Bayam Cabut, Amaranthus Tricolor L
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/13366
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