BKG

Sari, RembangEnggarPuspita (2017) Evaluasi Keseragaman Dan Potensi Hasil Cabai Merah F6 (Capsicum Annuum L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Cabai merah (Capsicum annuum L.) ialah anggota famili terong-terongan (Solanaceae) yang berasal dari Amerika tepatnya daerah Peru dan menyebar ke negara-negara di benua Amerika, Eropa, dan Asia termasuk Indonesia. Secara umum cabai merah banyak digemari masyarakat dalam bentuk buah segar dan dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai keperluan baik rumah tangga maupun industri. Buah cabai memiliki kandungan gizi tinggi, kaya akan protein dan vitamin. Potensi rata-rata nasional cabai hanya mencapai 5,5 ton/ha, padahal potensi produksinya dapat mencapai 20–40 ton/ha. Sehingga potensi untuk mengembangkan tanaman cabai merah masih terbuka lebar karena sangat potensial untuk daerah tropis. Salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan potensi hasil cabai merah ialah menyediakan benih yang berkualitas melalui teknik pemuliaan tanaman yaitu dengan mengukur serta membandingkan keseragaman antar galur pada tanaman cabai merah, sehingga dapat diketahui galur–galur mana saja yang berpotensi untuk dijadikan varietas baru. Penilaian keseragaman genetik tanaman dapat dilihat dari keragaman genetik yang dimiliki. Ragam genetik terjadi karena tanaman mempunyai karakter genetik yang berbeda. Umumnya dapat dilihat bila varietas yang berbeda ditanam pada kondisi lingkungan yang sama. Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui keseragaman dan potensi hasil pada 6 famili cabai merah F6. Hipotesis yang diajukan yaitu terdapat keseragaman dan potensi hasil paling tinggi pada 6 famili cabai merah F6. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Desa Kendalpayak, Kecamatan Pakisaji, Kabupaten Malang. Lokasi penelitian terletak pada ketinggian ± 400 m di atas permukaan laut (mdpl), dengan suhu rata-rata 22-28°C dan curah hujan 1255-1845 m3/dt pada bulan Mei hingga September 2016. Penelitian dilakukan dengan sistem tanam tunggal (single plant) yaitu menanam semua tanaman pada kondisi lingkungan yang sama tanpa menggunakan ulangan. Bahan tanam yang digunakan ialah 6 famili cabai merah F6 dan 2 varietas cabai merah sebagai pembanding. Pengamatan dilakukan pada setiap individu tanaman. Karakter yang diamati meliputi karakter kualitatif dan karakter kuantitatif . Karakter kualitatif yaitu tipe pertumbuhan, warna buah muda, warna buah masak, bentuk buah, dan bentuk ujung buah. Karakter kuantitatif yaitu umur berbunga, umur panen, tinggi tanaman, tinggi dikotomus, panjang buah, diameter buah, jumlah buah baik per tanaman, jumlah buah jelek per tanaman, jumlah buah total per tanaman, bobot buah baik per tanaman, bobot per buah. Data pengamatan yang diperoleh dianalisa dengan menghitung pendugaan nilai koefisien keragaman genetik (KKG) dan koefisien keragaman fenotip (KKF). ii Karakter kualitatif antar famili pada 6 famili F6 hampir mendekati 100% seragam. Famili yang memiliki 100% tipe pertumbuhan tegak yaitu famili A1.33.18.40, A3.8.14.16, A3.8.14.35, dan A4.92.19.40. Karakter warna buah masak famili A3.8.14.16 memiliki 87% warna merah dan sisanya 13% berwarna orange. Karakter bentuk buah yang paling dominan yaitu bentuk runcing. Sedangkan pada karakter warna buah muda dan bentuk ujung buah pada seluruh famili yang diamati telah seragam 100%. Karakter kuantitatif antar famili pada 6 famili F6 yang diamati hampir seragam, dengan nilai koefisien keragaman (KK) tergolong rendah dengan persentase antara 0,1%-25%, keragaman genetik (KKG) dan koefisien keragaman fenotip (KKF) juga tergolong rendah dengan persentase antara 0–25 %. Famili F6 cabai merah yang terpilih memiliki potensi hasil tinggi yaitu famili A1.33.18.40 dengan potensi hasil 54,36 kg/petak setara dengan 36,24 ton/ha, yang berarti lebih tinggi dibandingkan varietas Landung (35,05 ton/ha) dan tombak (42,45 ton/ha). Sedangkan rata-rata potensi hasil dari seluruh famili yang diamati yaitu 51,57 kg/petak serata dengan 34,48 ton/ha. Dari seleksi diperoleh empat famili yang potensial untuk dikembangkan karena memiliki persentase keseragaman yang cukup tinggi dibandingkan dengan famili yang lainnya yaitu A4.92.19.40, A3.8.14.16, B2.58.9.43, dan B5.27.20.53.

English Abstract

Red chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is a member of the eggplants family (Solanaceae) from America precisely Peru area and spread to countries in the Americas, Europe, and Asia, including Indonesia. Generally, red chili much-loved community in the form of fresh piece and used for various purposes both home and industry. Chilies have a high nutritional value, rich in protein and vitamins. National potential average of chili only reached 5.5 ton/ha, whereas the potential production may reach 20-40 tons/ha. So the potential for developing a red chili plant is still wide open because of a potential for tropical areas. One way to increase the potential yield of red chilies is to provide good quality seeds through plant breeding techniques is to measure and compare the uniformity among strains in pepper red, so it can be known which strains are potentially to be used as new varieties. Assessment of plant genetic uniformity can be seen from the genetic diversity owned. Genetic diversity occurs because plants have different genetical characteristics. Generally, it can be seen when the different varieties grown in the same environmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the uniformity and the potential yield of the 6 F6 red chili families. The hypothesis proposed that, there is the uniformity and yield potential in 6 F6 red chili families is highest. The research was conducted in the village of Kendalpayak, Pakisaji subdistrict, Malang regency. The research location lays at an altitude of ± 400 m above mean sea level (amsl), with an average temperature of 22-28 ° C and rainfall from 1255 to 1845 m3 / sec in May to September 2016. Research carried out by a single cropping system (single plant) to plant all the plants in the same environmental conditions without the use of repetition. Planting material used are seeds of the 6 family of F6 generation and two local varieties for comparison. Observations were made on each individual plant. Character observation consisted of qualitative character and quantitative character. Qualitative character that is the type of growth, the color of immature piece, ripe piece color, piece shape, and the shape of pieces tip. Quantitative characters consist of flowering age, harvesting age, plant height, height of dichotomous, piece length, piece diameter, number of good piece per plant, number of bad piece per plant, total number of piece per plant, good piece weight per plant, weight per piece. Observational data obtained were analyzed by calculating the prediction value of the coefficient of genetic diversity (KKG) and coefficient of phenotypic diversity (KKF). iv The results showed that, out of eleven quantitative characters were observed, six families have the capabilities and advantages. Family A1 33 18 40 had the highest piece number and the highest piece total weight. The highest weights per family obtained by family B5 27 20 53 followed by the families A3 and A4 8 14 35 92 19 40. The highest length of the family obtained by family A4 92 19 40. By the terms of qualitative character, the whole family almost has the similar character. The character of immature piece, the color of ripe piece, and shape of pieces tip have a 100% uniformity of the total families observed. From these result is concluded that the selected families who have the highest yield potential compared to other family is family A1 33 18 40. The selection criteria of the selected family is taken from the value of the weight per fruits, and total weight per plant, while the other characters is used as a support.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2017/187/051703617
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/132095
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