BKG

Putri, AmanizDiharwatiSiswanto (2017) Respon Seleksi Massa Pada Tanaman Cabai Rawit (Capsicum Frutescens L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Cabai rawit (Capsicum frutescens. L) merupakan salah satu tanaman hortikultura yang memiliki nilai ekonomi tinggi. Cabai rawit banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai bumbu masakan dan bahan campuran industri pengolahan makanan. Produktivitas cabai rawit nasional di Indonesia masih tergolong rendah, hal tersebut dikarenakan faktor iklim yang tidak menentu dan tingginya serangan hama dan penyakit. Salah satu upaya untuk memperbaiki produktivitas dan kualitas cabai rawit dapat dilakukan melalui seleksi. Seleksi massa merupakan salah satu metode seleksi berdasarkan pada penampilan fenotipe yang bijinya kemudian dicampur tanpa dilakukan uji keturunan. Tanaman yang dihasilkan melalui seleksi massa lebih beradaptasi luas pada lingkungan yang beragam dan lebih tahan terhadap kerusakan akibat serangan hama dan penyakit. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menduga respon seleksi massa pada karakter komponen hasil dan hasil tanaman cabai rawit. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Agrotechnopark, Universitas Brawijaya, Desa Jatikerto, Kecamatan Kromengan, Kabupaten Malang pada bulan Desember 2015 sampai dengan bulan Agustus 2016. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini antara lain mulsa plastik hitam perak (MPHP), ajir bambu, meteran ukur, timbangan analitik, jangka sorong, cangkul, sprayer, alat tulis, kamera digital, kertas label, plastik bibit, dan deskriptor cabai. Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah benih cabai rawit lokal, pupuk kandang, pupuk ZA, SP36, KCl, pupuk daun Gandasil D, Gandasil B, dan pestisida. Penelitian menggunakan metode pengamatan single plant. Terdapat 16 bedengan dalam satu lahan, setiap bedengan berukuran 8×1,1 m dan memuat 20 tanaman, sehingga total keseluruhan populasi sebanyak 320 tanaman. Variabel pengamatan terdiri dari karakter komponen hasil, hasil dan karakter kualitatif. Pengamatan karakter komponen hasil terdiri dari tinggi tanaman (cm), tinggi dikotomus (cm), diameter batang (cm), umur mulai berbunga (HST), umur panen (HST), bobot per buah (g), panjang buah (cm), diameter buah (cm), jumlah buah total per tanaman (buah), dan bobot 1000 biji, sedangkan hasil diamati dari bobot buah total per tanaman (g). Pengamatan kualitatif terdiri dari warna batang, bentuk batang, bulu pada batang, tipe habitus, warna daun, bentuk daun, posisi tangkai bunga, posisi putik, posisi buah, warna buah muda, bentuk buah, dan bentuk ujung buah. Analisis data karakter komponen hasil dan hasil dilakukan dengan menghitung kisaran rerata, ragam, simpangan baku, koefisien keragaman fenotipe, dan respon seleksi. Hasil pengamatan karakter kualitatif disajikan secara deskriptif. Kegiatan seleksi dilakukan berdasarkan tipe habitus kompak yang memiliki hasil tinggi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat respon seleksi yang berbeda pada karakter komponen hasil dan hasil cabai rawit yang diamati. Nilai respon seleksi yang besar terdapat pada karakter jumlah buah total per tanaman (ΔP = 141,15) meningkat sebesar 84,94% dan bobot buah total per tanaman (ΔP = 250,13) meningkat sebesar 94,66%.

English Abstract

Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) is one of horticulture crop that have high economic value. Chili usually use as flavor and mix material for food industries. National productivity of chili pepper in Indonesia is still low, it caused by climate factors, pests and diseases. One of the solution to improved chili productivity and quality is with selection. Mass selection is one of the selection methode that individual is selected based on phenotype without progeny test. Crop that produced by mass selection is more widely adapted in various environment and more resistant to damage caused by pests and diseases. The aimed of this study were to estimated mass selection response on yield component characters and yield on chili pepper. The research was conducted in Agrotechnopark of Brawijaya University, Jatikerto village, Kromengan sub-district, Malang regency on December 2015 until August 2016. Tools that used in this research were mulch, bamboo stakes, measuring meter, analytical scales, calliper, hoe, sprayer, stationery, digital cameras, paper labels, plastic seeds, and chili descriptors. The materials were used in this research chili seeds, manure (ZA, SP36, KCl), foliar fertilizer (Gandasil D, Gandasil B), and pesticides. The research was carried out in single plant methode. The plants were transplanted into seed beds measuring 8×1.1 m and spaced 70×70 cm. There were sixteen seed beds, in each seed beds consists of two row, and maintened to accommodate ten plants per row, so that, there were three hundred and twenty plants on field. Variable observation consists of yield component characters, yield and qualitative characters. Yield component characters that were collected plant height (cm), dichotomous height (cm), stem diameter (cm), days to flowering (dat), days to harvesting (dat), fruit weight (g), fruit length (cm), fruit width (cm), number of fruit per plant (fruit), and 1000 seed weight (g). Yield character was fruit yield per plant (g). Qualitative characters consists of stem colour, stem shape, stem pubescence, plant growth habit, leaf colour, leaf shape, flower position, pistil position, fruit position, fruit colour at intermediate stage, fruit shape, and fruit position at blossom end. Data of yield component characters and yield analyzed by calculating mean, variance, standard deviation, phenotypic of coefficient variability, and selection response. The qualitative characters presented descriptively. Selection activity were based on compact plant growth habit with high potential yield. The result showed that there were differences selection response on yield component characters and yield of chili pepper. Characters that had big value of selection response were number of fruit per plant (ΔP = 141.15) increased 84.94% and yield per plant (ΔP = 250.13) increased 94.66%.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2017/173/051703250
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/132080
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