BKG

OktaviaNarendri, Gusminanda (2016) Pemurnian Genetik Empat Varietas Kacang Panjang (Vigna sesquipedalis (L.) Fruwirth) Berpolong Ungu. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Kacang panjang (Vigna sesquipedalis (L.) Fruwirth) merupakan komoditas hortikultura yang termasuk famili Fabaceae dan genus Vigna. Varietas-varietas kacang panjang yang unggul perlu dikembangkan dan dirakit, seperti contohnya kacang panjang berpolong ungu. Enam varietas kacang panjang berpolong ungu telah didaftarkan di Pusat Perlindungan Varietas Tanaman dan Perizinan Pertanian pada tahun 2014. Enam varietas tersebut adalah Brawijaya Ungu 1 (BU 1), Brawijaya Ungu 2 (BU 2), Brawijaya Ungu 3 (BU 3), Brawijaya Ungu 4 (BU 4), Brawijaya Ungu 5 (BU 5), dan Brawijaya Ungu 6 (BU 6). Hasil penelitian sebelumnya yang dilakukan oleh Supriatun, Kuswanto, dan Saptadi (2015), menunjukkan bahwa masih ditemukan keragaman pada varietas BU 1, BU 4, BU 5, dan BU 6 setelah dilakukan rejuvinasi dan seleksi individu pada enam varietas kacang panjang berpolong ungu berdasarkan karakter morfologi. Keragaman tersebut yaitu masih ditemukannya polong kacang panjang yang berwarna hijau. Upaya peningkatan kemurnian genetik pada varietas-varietas kacang panjang ungu perlu dilakukan kembali, selain itu juga harus dilakukan seleksi polong kacang panjang yang sudah berwarna ungu untuk menghasilkan kacang panjang berpolong ungu yang seragam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan empat varietas kacang panjang berpolong ungu yang murni secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari sampai April 2016. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya yang terletak di Desa Jatikerto, Kecamatan Kromengan, Kabupaten Malang. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian terdiri dari cangkul, cetok, tugal, gembor, sabit, tali rafia, meteran, ajir, knapsack sprayer, penggaris, papan nama, spidol, label, jangka sorong, kalkulator, timbangan, kamera, Color Chart, serta deskripsi varietas keenam kacang panjang. Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini ialah 4 varietas kacang panjang berpolong ungu, yaitu varietas BU 1, varietas BU 4, varietas BU 5, dan varietas BU 6. Varietas BU 2 dan BU 3 digunakan sebagai varietas pembanding karena varietas ini telah seragam dan murni secara genetik. Penelitian menggunakan metode penelitian blok tunggal tanpa ulangan yang terdiri dari 4 varietas kacang panjang berpolong ungu serta 2 varietas pembanding. Kacang panjang tersebut ditanam di lahan dan dikelompokkan berdasarkan varietas, yangmana setiap varietas ditanam dalam 1 bedengan. Satu varietas terdiri dari 100 tanaman dan dalam 1 lubang tanam terdiri dari 2 benih, sehingga total tanaman yaitu 600 tanaman. Pengamatan dilakukan secara single plant, yaitu pengamatan dilakukan pada setiap individu tanaman di lahan. Variabel pengamatan yang dilakukan terdiri dari karakter kualitatif dan karakter kuantitatif. Pengamatan kualitatif meliputi warna daun, bentuk daun, warna kelopak bunga, warna sayap bunga pada saat mekar penuh, warna standar bunga pada saat mekar penuh, warna polong, tekstur permukaan polong, warna utama biji, tekstur permukaan biji, dan warna batang. Pengamatan karakter kuantitatif meliputi umur berbunga (hst), umur panen segar (hst), jumlah bunga, ukuran polong (cm), panjang tangkai polong saat panen pertama (cm), jumlah polong per tanaman, jumlah biji per polong, dan bobot 100 biji (g). Pengolahan data dianalisis secara deskriptif pada setiap varietas dengan menghitung kisaran rata-rata, ragam, simpangan baku, dan KK (Koefisien Keragaman). Hasil pengamatan karakter kualitatif disajikan dalam bentuk deskripsi yang dinilai dengan persentase serta disajikan dalam bentuk gambar. Pengamatan karakter kualitatif lebih ditekankan pada warna polong kacang panjang. Statistik yang digunakan untuk menguji hipotesis pada 2 populasi yaitu menggunakan Uji T. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 1 varietas yang secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif sudah seragam, yaitu varietas BU 1. Terdapat 2 varietas yang secara kualitatif sudah seragam, namun secara kuantitatif belum seragam yaitu varietas BU 4 dan BU 5. Nilai KK varietas BU 4 pada variabel pengamatan jumlah biji per polong menunjukkan nilai sedang, yaitu 25,1%-50%. Nilai KK varietas BU 5 pada variabel pengamatan jumlah polong per tanaman dan jumlah biji per polong menunjukkan nilai sedang, yaitu 25,1%-50%. Varietas BU 6 secara kualitatif belum seragam karena masih ditemukan polong berwarna hijau, kelopak bunga berwarna hijau, dan batang berwarna hijau sebesar 30,43%.

English Abstract

Yardlong bean (Vigna sesquipedalis (L.) Fruwirth) were horticultural commodities which include the family of Fabaceae and the genus of Vigna. Yardlong bean’s superior varieties needed to be developed and assembled, example purple yardlong bean. Six varieties of purple yardlong bean have been registered at the Center for Plant Variety Protection and Licensing of Agriculture in 2014. The six varieties were Brawijaya Ungu 1 (BU 1), Brawijaya Ungu 2 (BU 2), Brawijaya Ungu 3 (BU 3), Brawijaya Ungu 4 (BU 4), Brawijaya Ungu 5 (BU 5), and Brawijaya Ungu 6 (BU 6). The result of previous research which conducted by Supriatun, Kuswanto, and Saptadi (2015), showed that there were still found variablity on BU 1, BU 4, BU 5, and BU 6 varieties after rejuvenation and individual selection on six varieties purple yardlong bean based on morphological characters. The variability were still found green yardlong bean. The effort to improve genetic purity of purple yardlong bean varieties needed to be done again, and then it should be selected purple yardlong bean to produce uniform of purple yardlong bean. The purpose of this research was to get four varieties of purple yardlong bean which have qualitative and quantitative purity. This research was conducted on Januari until April 2016. This research was conducted at Experimental Garden Agriculture Faculty of Brawijaya University which is located in Jatikerto village, Kromengan subdristrict, Malang. The tools used in this research were hoe, trowel, dibble, watering can, sickle, raffia, gage, stake, knapsack sprayer, ruler, plank, felt-tip marker, labels, outside callipers, calculator, scales, camera, Color Chart, and variety description of six yardlong bean. The materials used in this research were 4 varieties purple yardlong bean, that was BU 1 variety, BU 4 variety, BU 5 variety, and BU 6 variety. BU 2 and BU 3 varieties were used as comparator variety because these varieties have been uniform and pure as genetic This research used single block research methods without repetition consisted of 4 varieties purple yardlong bean and 2 varieties as comparator. The yardlong bean grew on land and grouped by varieties, which each variety planted in one plot. One variety consisted of 100 plants and in 1 planting hole consisted of 2 seeds, so the total crop were 600 plants. The observations was done by single plant, it means that the observation was done to each individual plant in the land. The observation variable consisted of qualitative and quantitative characters. Qualitative observations included leaf color, leaf shape, color of petals, color of flower’s wing during full bloom, standard color of flower when in full bloom, pod color, texture of pod’s surface, the main color of seed, texture of seed’s surface, and stem color. Quantitative observations include age flowering (dap), age fresh harvest (dap), number of flower, pod size (cm), long stalk pods at first harvest (cm), number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, and weight of 100 seeds (g). The data analyzed descriptively on each variety by calculated the average range, variance, standard deviation, and CV (Coefficient of Variance). The observation of qualitative character presented in description that assessed by percentage and presented in images. The observation of qualitative character more emphasised on pod color. The statistics used to test the hypothesis in 2 population were T test. The research result showed that there was 1 variety was uniform as qualitative and quantitative, i.e. BU 1 variety. There were 2 varieties that uniform as quantitative, but were not uniform as quantitative, i.e. BU 4 and BU 5 varieties. The CV value of BU 4 variety on number seed per pod variable showed moderate value, that is 25,1%-50%. The CV value of BU 5 variety on number pod per plant and number seed per pod variables showed moderate value, that is 25,1%-50%. BU 6 variety was not uniform as qualitative because it still found green pod, green petal, and green stem of 30,43%.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/761/051609565
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Sugiantoro
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131768
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