BKG

AlifMaulanaRamadhan, (2016) Karakterisasi Morfologi Dan Hubungan Kekerabatan 28 Genotip Tanaman Tomat (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Tomat (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) adalah salah satu komoditas yang banyak dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat dan telah lama diusahakan oleh petani sebagai usaha tani yang bersifat komersial. Banyaknya kegunaan dan manfaat buah tomat menyebabkan permintaan setiap tahun cenderung meningkat. Data statistik hortikultura menunjukkan bahwa produksi tomat di Indonesia pada tahun 2013 sebesar 16,61 ton/ha dan menurun menjadi 15,96 ton/ha pada tahun 2014 (Badan Pusat Statistik, 2014). Salah satu usaha yang dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman tomat ialah dengan menggunakan varietas unggul. Suatu varietas dikatakan unggul jika memiliki sifat-sifat yang dapat menunjang keberhasilan budidaya tomat, diantaranya : produksi tinggi, tahan terhadap hama dan penyakit, tahan terhadap cekaman lingkungan, serta dapat diterapkan untuk teknologi budidaya yang efisien (Baihaki, 2000). Penelitian dilakukan di Desa Dadaprejo Kecamatan Junrejo Kota Batu pada bulan Juni sampai November 2015. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini ialah wadah semai, kertas label, ajir bambu, meteran ukur, tali, kamera, cangkul, sabit, kain, timbangan analitik dan colour chart. Bahan yang digunakan sebanyak 28 genotip tanaman dan pupuk kandang. Tujuan penelitian ialah untuk mengetahui karakter morfologi dan hubungan kekerabatan antar genotip tomat, sedangkan untuk hipotesisnya ialah terdapat perbedaan karakter morfologi dan adanya hubungan kekerabatan antar genotip tanaman tomat. Metode yang digunakan ialah Metode Baris Tunggal. Karakter kuantitatif dianalisis dengan menghitung rerata, ragam dan koefisien keragaman, sedangkan karakter kualitatif dianalisis dengan metode deskriptif dan dokumentatif. Aplikasi MVSP digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan antara beberapa sampel dengan melihat muncul atau tidaknya suatu parameter/faktor fisik pada masing-masing sampel. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan karakter kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Karakter kuantitatif meliputi tinggi tanaman, umur berbunga, jumlah bunga per tanaman, jumlah tandan bunga per tanaman, fruit set, umur panen, jumlah buah bagus per tanaman, jumlah buah jelek pertanaman, jumlah total buah per tanaman, bobot buah total, dan bobot per buah. Karakter kualitatif meliputi tipe pertumbuhan, tipe daun, warna buah matang, warna bunga dan bentuk buah. Hasil dari penelitian pengamatan karakter kuantitatif menunjukkan bahwa genotip Costoluto Fiorentino memiliki fruit set lebih tinggi dari genotip lainnya, yaitu 69,6 % dan mampu menghasilkan rata-rata total buah 35,2. Sedangkan genotip Yellow Pear memiliki total buah lebih banyak dari genotip lainnya, yaitu 48,3 buah dan nilai fruit set ialah 65%. Hasil dari pengamatan karakter kualitatif pada pengamatan warna buah muncul keunikan pada warna buah genotip Yellow Pear, Hillbilly dan Old German yang memiliki warna kuning menyerupai warna buah lemon, sedangkan pada genotip Indigo Rose memiliki warna ungu pekat pada buahnya. Keunikan juga terjadi pada pengamatan bentuk buah pada genotip Garden Pearl, Red Pear dan Yellow Pear yang memiliki bentuk buah menyerupai buah pir. Dari hasil kekerabatan 28 genotip tanaman tomat yang ditampilkan oleh dendogram menunjukkan bahwa genotip Costoluto Fiorentino dan Costoluto Genovese memiliki nilai kemiripan 100% yang berarti kedua genotip tersebut berkerabat dekat.

English Abstract

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) is one of the commodities that are consumed by many people and has long been cultivated by farmers as a farm that is commercial. There are many advantages of tomato cause the demand increase in every year. Statistical data of horticultural tomato production in Indonesia showed that there are 16.61 tonnes / ha in 2013 and decreased to 15.96 tonnes / ha in 2014 (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2014). One of the efforts made productivity of tomato plants improve was by using high yielding variety. It could be categorized as superior variety if it had properties that could support the successful cultivation, including: high production, resistant to pests and diseases, resistance to environmental stress, and can be applied in efficient cultivation technology (Baihaki, 2000). The study was conducted in Dadaprejo Junrejo village, Batu subdistrict in June and November 2015. The tools used in this research were the seedling container, label paper, bamboo stakes, measuring meter, strap, camera, hoes, sickles, fabrics, analytical balance and color chart. There were 28 genotypes of tomatoes and manure. The purpose of this research was to determine the morphological character and genetic relationship between genotype tomato, while the hypothesis was, there was the difference of morphological character and there was genetic relationship in tomato plant genotype. The design used was Single Line. The quantitative characters were analyzed by calculating the mean, range and diversity coefficient, while the qualitative characters were analyzed by using descriptive and documentative methods. MVSP application was used to determine genetic relationship of some samples by looking whether or not a parameter appear / physical factors on each sample. Observations conducted with quantitative and qualitative characters. Quantitative character included plant height, days to flowering, number of flowers per plant, number of bunches of flowers per plant, fruit set, harvesting age, number of nice fruit per plant, number of pieces of bad crops, the total number of fruit per plant, fruit weight in total, and the weight per fruit. Qualitative character included the type of growth, types of leaves, the color of ripe fruit, flower color and shape of the fruit. The results from observational study of quantitative characters showed that the average value of the higher fruit set was genotype Costoluto Fiorentino with 69.6% and capable of producing an average total of 35.2 fruit. While the average total fruit genotyping was higher with 48.3 Yellow Pear fruit and fruit set value was 65%. The results of the observations on the qualitative character appear unique fruit color observations on the color of the fruit genotypes Yellow Pear, Hillbilly and Old German that had yellow color resembles which was the color of lemon, while the genotype Indigo Rose had dark purple color on the fruit. Uniqueness also occur in the form of fruit on genotype observations Garden Pearl, Red Pear and Yellow Pear fruit that had shape like pear. From the results of 28 genotypes genetic relationship of tomato plant shown by dendogram showed that Costoluto Fiorentino and Costoluto Genovese genotypes had similarity value of 100%, which meant both genotypes were closely related.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/722/051609409
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Sugiantoro
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131734
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