BKG

FariedNugroho, Indanus (2016) Pengaruh Kerapatan Gulma Teki (Cyperus Rotundus L.) Terhadap Tanaman Buncis Tegak (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Tanaman buncis (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) ialah tanaman budidaya yang dapat tumbuh baik apabila ditanam pada ketinggian 500-600 meter dpl (Setiawan, 1994). Kandungan gizi dari 100 g buncis terdiri dari 35 kkal, 2,4 gram protein, 0,2 gram lemak, 7,7 gram karbohidrat. 65 gram kalsium, 44 mg fosfor, 1,1 mg zat besi, 630 mg vitamin A, 0,08 mg vitamin B1, 19 mg vitamin C, dan 88,9 gram air. Produksi tanaman sayuran buncis tegak di Indonesia semakin meningkat. Pada tahun 2012 produksi buncis tegak di Indonesia yaitu 322.145 ton dan pada tahun 2013 meningkat hingga 327.378 ton. Tanaman buncis tegak perlu dilakukan perawatan tanaman yang intensif untuk meningkatkan dan mempertahankan hasil produksi tanaman. Usaha yang dilakukan salah satunya ialah melalui pengendalian gulma. Kehadiran gulma teki diantara tanaman buncis tegak dapat menyebabkan persaingan dalam memperebutkan unsur hara, air, cahaya, ruang tempat tumbuh dan CO2. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu mengetahui pengaruh kompetisi antara gulma teki dengan tanaman buncis tegak melalui berbagai tingkat kepadatan gulma teki, serta mengetahui tingkat kepadatan gulma polibag-1 yang paling sesuai untuk pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman buncis tegak. Hipotesis yang diajukan adalah semakin tinggi populasi rumput teki akan semakin menghambat pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman buncis tegak. Tingkat kepadatan gulma yang paling sesuai untuk pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman buncis tegak adalah 4 gulma teki polibag-1. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di lahan pertanian di Kelurahan Kendalsari Kecamatan Lowokwaru Kota Malang yang terletak pada ketinggian ± 850 dari permukaan laut (dpl) dan memiliki curah hujan 850 - 1000 mm tahun-1. Penelitian ini di mulai pada bulan Maret sampai Mei 2015. Alat yang di gunakan dalam penelitian meliputi cangkul, kertas label, tali rafia, penggaris, meteran, timbangan analitik, selang air, alat tulis, kamera, karung goni, karung, LAM (Leaf Area Meter), dan polibag dengan diameter 30 cm. Bahan-bahan yang digunakan ialah benih buncis tegak varietas Gypsi. Pupuk yang digunakan adalah Urea 72 kg ha-1, SP-36 135 kg ha-1, KCL 104 kg ha-1 dan pupuk kandang ayam. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK). Perlakuannya ialah tingkat kepadatan gulma (P) yang terdiri dari 6 taraf, yaitu: P0 = kepadatan gulma 0 tumbuhan m-2 (0 tumbuhan polibag-1) P1 = kepadatan gulma 30 tumbuhan m-2 (2 tumbuhan polibag-1) P2 = kepadatan gulma 60 tumbuhan m-2 (4 tumbuhan polibag-1) P3 = kepadatan gulma 90 tumbuhan m-2 (6 tumbuhan polibag-1) P4 = kepadatan gulma 120 tumbuhan m-2 (8 tumbuhan polibag-1) P5 = kepadatan gulma 150 tumbuhan m-2 (10 tumbuhan polibag-1) Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: • Terdapat pengaruh signifikan perlakuan tingkat kepadatan gulma teki terhadap tinggi tanaman pada umur pengamatan 43 hst - 53 hst, serta perlakuan 10 gulma teki per polibag dapat menghambat pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman buncis tegak yaitu masing-masing sebesar 18,73% dan 6,18% dibandingkan dengan perlakuan 0 gulma teki per polibag pada umur pengamatan 43 hst - 53 hst. Setiap bertambahnya kepadatan 1 gulma teki maka tinggi tanaman mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,3947 cm. Pengaruh kepadatan gulma terhadap tinggi tanaman sebesar 19,14% sedangkan sisanya dapat dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain. • Terdapat pengaruh signifikan perlakuan tingkat kepadatan gulma teki terhadap jumlah cabang yang dihasilkan pada umur 13 dan 43 hst. Pada umur 13 hst perlakuan antara 2 dan 10 gulma teki per polibag, perlakuan antara 4 dan 8 gulma teki per polibag, dan perlakuan antara 4 dan 10 gulma teki per polibag menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan dan menurunkan jumlah cabang yaitu masing-masing sebesar 13,06%, 10,53%, dan 17,54%. Setiap bertambahnya kepadatan 1 gulma teki maka jumlah cabang mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,0419 cabang. Pengaruh kepadatan gulma terhadap jumlah cabang sebesar 0,36% sedangkan sisanya dapat dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain. • Pada umur pengamatan 43 hst dan 53 hst terdapat pengaruh signifikan perlakuan tingkat kepadatan gulma teki terhadap jumlah daun. Pada umur 53 hst pertumbuhan jumlah daun memiliki pola hasil yang sama dengan usia 43 hst, perlakuan 10 gulma teki per polibag dapat menghambat pertumbuhan jumlah daun tanaman buncis tegak sebesar 2,59% dibandingkan dengan perlakuan 0 gulma teki per polibag. Setiap bertambahnya kepadatan 1 gulma teki maka jumlah daun mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,0789 daun. Pengaruh kepadatan gulma terhadap jumlah daun sebesar 9,1% sedangkan sisanya dapat dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain. • Terdapat pengaruh signifikan perlakuan tingkat kepadatan gulma teki terhadap luas daun yang dihasilkan pada umur pengamatan 53 hst. Perlakuan 8 dan 10 gulma teki per polibag dapat menghambat pertumbuhan luas daun tanaman buncis tegak yaitu masing-masing sebesar 64,79% dan 45,29% dibandingkan dengan perlakuan 0 gulma teki per polibag. Setiap bertambahnya kepadatan 1 gulma teki maka jumlah daun mengalami penurunan sebesar 7,0471 luas daun. Kepadatan gulma terhadap luas daun sebesar 75,46% yang berarti kepadatan gulma mempengaruhi seluruh pertumbuhan luas daun. • Terdapat pengaruh signifikan perlakuan tingkat kepadatan gulma teki terhadap jumlah bunga dan jumlah polong. Perlakuan 10 gulma teki per polibag dapat menurunkan jumlah bunga dan jumlah polong tanaman buncis tegak yaitu masing-masing sebesar 9,04% dan 13,13% dibandingkan dengan perlakuan 0 gulma teki per polibag. Setiap bertambahnya kepadatan 1 gulma teki maka jumlah bunga mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,074 bunga. Pengaruh kepadatan gulma terhadap jumlah bunga sebesar 21,24% yang berarti kepadatan gulma mempengaruhi seluruh pembentukan jumlah bunga. Setiap bertambahnya kepadatan 1 gulma teki maka jumlah polong mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,069 bunga. Pengaruh kepadatan gulma terhadap jumlah polong sebesar 26,82% sedangkan sisanya dapat dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain. • Terdapat pengaruh signifikan perlakuan tingkat kepadatan gulma teki terhadap berat polong. Perlakuan 8 dan 10 gulma teki per polibag dapat menurunkan berat polong tanaman buncis tegak masing-masing sebesar 38,54% dan 48,86% dibandingkan dengan 0 gulma teki per polibag. Setiap bertambahnya kepadatan 1 gulma teki maka berat polong mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,6541 gram. Pengaruh kepadatan gulma terhadap berat polong sebesar 59,16% yang berarti kepadatan gulma mempengaruhi seluruh berat polong. • Terdapat pengaruh signifikan perlakuan tingkat kepadatan gulma teki terhadap berat basah tanaman buncis. Perlakuan 10 gulma teki per polibag dapat menurunkan berat basah tanaman buncis tegak yaitu sebesar 81,59% dibandingkan dengan perlakuan 4 gulma teki per polibag. Setiap bertambahnya kepadatan 1 gulma teki maka berat basah tanaman mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,5291. Pengaruh kepadatan gulma terhadap berat basah tanaman sebesar 7,65% sedangkan sisanya dapat dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain. • Terdapat penga

English Abstract

Green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is cultivated plants that can grow good if planted in the height of 500-600 meters dpl (Setiawan, 1994). Nutritional content of 100 g 35 kcal consisting of beans, 2,4 gram of protein, 0,2 grams of fat, 7,7 grams of carbohydrates, 65 grams of calcium, 44 mg of phosphorus, 1.1 mg iron, 630 mg of vitamin a, 0,08 mg of vitamin B1, 19 mg of vitamin C, and 88,9 gram of water. The production of green beans in Indonesia has increased. Green beans production in 2012 is increase in 2013, there are 322.145 tons increased to 327.378 tons. Erect the green beans treatment plant to be done to improve and maintain the results of intensive production plants. Efforts by one of them is through weed control. The presence of a weed cyperus among the green beans can cause competition for organic element in, water, light, the space grow and CO2. The aim of this research is to know what the competition between weeds with the green beans through various level of density weeds of growth and results of green beans plant, and to know the best density level of nutgrass per polibag. A hypothesis was proposed by the high grass growing populations will impede growth and the results of the green beans. The best weeds density is 4 nutgrass polybag-1. The study at Kendalsari Regency - Lowokwaru sub-district, the unfortunate situated at an altitude of 850 sea level (dpl) and precipitation have 850 - 100 mm year-1. This experiment begins on March until May 2015. A device on a hoe, used in research paper label, raffia, ruler, analytical scales, sprayer, stationery, camera, sack, LAM (Leaf Area Meter) and polibag with a diameter of 30 cm. Materials used is the seed of green beans, gypsi varieties. A fertilizer that is used is urea 72 kg ha-1, SP-36 135 pounds ha-1, KCl 104 kg ha-1 and fertilizer cage for hens. This study using random design group. The factor is a density weeds (P) which consisted of six: P0 = weed population 0 weed m-2 (0 weed polibag-1) P1 = weeds population 30 weeds m-2 (2 weeds polibag-1) P2 = weeds population 60 weeds m-2 (4 weeds polibag-1) P3 = weeds population 90 weeds m-2 (6 weeds polibag-1) P4 = weeds population 120 weeds m-2 (8 weeds polibag-1) P5 = weeds population 150 weeds m-2 (10 weeds polibag-1). The results showed: • There was a significant effect of the treatment weed density on the plant height at the age of 43 days after planting - 53 days after planting, and the treatment 10 weeds per polybag weeds can inhibit the growth of bean plants height respectively 18,73% and 618% if compared with treatment 0 weed per polybag at the age 43 days after planting - 53 days after planting. Every increase in the density of 1 weed, the plant height decreased by 0,3947 cm. Effect of weed density on plant height of 19,14% while the rest can be influenced by other factors. There was a significant effect of the treatment weed densities on the number of branches produced at the age of 13 and 43 days after planting. At the age of 13 days after planting treatment between 2 and 10 weeds per polybag, between 4 and 8 per polybag weeds , and between 4 and 10 weeds per polybag showed a significant difference and decrease the number of branches are respectively 13.06 %, 10.53% and 17.54%. Every increase in the density of 1 weed , the number of branches decreased 0,419 branch. The effect of weed density on the number of branches is 0,36% while the rest can be influenced by other factors. • At the age of 43 days after planting and 53 days after planting significant effect of treatment weed density on the number of leaves. At the age of 53 days after planting growth in the number of leaves have the same pattern of results by the age of 43 days after planting, weed treatment 10 weeds per polybag can inhibit the growth of the number of leaves of green bean plants is 2,59% if compared to 0 weeds per polybag. Every increase in the density of 1 weeds per polybag, the number of leaves decreased 0,0789 leaves. Effect of weed density on the number of leaves at 9,1% while the rest can be influenced by other factors. • There was a significant effect of treatment on the density of leaf area of weeds at age 53 days after planting. Treatment 8 and 10 weeds per polybag can inhibit the growth of broad leaves of bean plants is respectively 64,79% and 45,29% if compared to the treatment of 0 weeds per polybag. Every increase in the density of 1 weed , the number of leaves decreased by 7,0471 leaf area. Weeds against broad leaf density of 75,46%, which means the density of weeds affect the entire leaf area growth. • There was a significant effect of the treatment weed densities against the amount of interest and the number of pods. Treatment of 10 weeds per polybag can reduce the amount of interest and the number of pods green bean plants are respectively 9.04% and 13.13% if compared to the treatment of weeds 0 per polybag. Every increase in the density of 1 weed then the amount of interest decreased by 0,074 flowers. Effect of weed densities to total interest rate of 21,24%, which means the density of weeds affect the whole formation of the amount of interest. Every increase in the density of 1 weed , the number of pods has decreased by 0,069 flower. Effect of weed density on the number of pods of 26,82%, which means the density of weeds affect the whole formation of the number of pods. • There was a significant effect of the treatment weed density to weight pods. Treatment 8 and 10 weeds per polybag can lose pod bean plants upright respectively 38.54% and 48.86% compared with 0 weed per polybag. Every increase in the density of 1 weed pods then the weight decreased by 0,6541 gram. Effect of weed density on pod weight of 59,16%, which means the density of weeds affect the entire weight of the pods. • There was a significant effect of the treatment weed densities against the wet weight of bean plants. Treatment of 10 weeds per polybag can reduce the weight of wet bean plants upright in the amount of 81.59% if compared to the treatment of 4 per weeds polybag. Every increase in the density of 1 weed the plant fresh weight decreased by 0,5291. Effect of weed density on plant fresh weight of 7,65%, while the rest can be influenced by other factors. • There was a significant effect of treatment on the long weed densities of weeds produced at the age of 13 days after planting and 23 days after planting. Every increase in the density of 1 weed so long of weeds was decreased 0,4947. There is a significant effect of the treatment weeds densities on the number of weeds seedlings produced at the age of 13 days after planting - 43 days after planting. Every increase in the density of 1 weed then number of seeds increased by 0,2751. There is a significant effect of the treatment weed densities against the fresh weight of weeds produced at the age of 13 days after planting

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/631/051609318
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Sugiantoro
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131637
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