BKG

Lasmono, Giri (2016) PENDUGAAN NILAI HERITABILITAS, KERAGAMAN GENETIK DAN KEMAJUAN GENETIK HARAPAN PADA BEBERAPA GENOTIPE F5 CABAI (Capsicum annuum L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) merupakan salah satu komoditas sayuran penting dan bernilai ekonomi tinggi di Indonesia. Berdasarkan data BPS (2015) mencatat nilai produktivitas cabai pada tahun 2011-2015 berturut-turut yaitu 7,34 ton ha-1; 7,93 ton ha-1; 8,16 ton ha-1; 8,35 ton ha-1; dan 8,43 ton ha-1. Produktivitas tanaman cabai di Indonesia masih tergolong sangat rendah karena menurut (Agustin et al., 2010) menyatakan bahwa potensi produktivitas tanaman cabai bisa mencapai 20-40 ton ha-1. Adapun salah satu kegiatan atau usaha untuk meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman cabai yang lebih baik dan optimal yaitu dengan menggunakan varietas unggul dengan daya hasil tinggi. Penggunaan varietas unggul merupakan salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan produksi di bidang pertanian, tidak terkecuali cabai (Syukur et al., 2012). Daya hasil merupakan sifat kuantitatif yang dikendalikan oleh gen yang bersifat polygenic sehingga diperlukan seleksi pada karakter yang mendukung perbaikan produktivitas cabai. Untuk memperoleh verietas unggul maka parameter genetik yang digunakan antara lain: nilai duga heritabilitas, keragaman genetik dan kemajuan genetik harapan (KGH). Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menduga nilai heritabilitas, keragaman genetik dan kemajuan genetik harapan pada beberapa karakter dari genotipe F5 cabai hasil silangan yang diuji dan memilih genotipe yang memiliki daya hasil tinggi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya di desa Kepuharjo, Kecamatan Karangploso, Kabupaten Malang dengan ketinggian 600 m dpl. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari sampai Juni 2015. Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah benih hasil seleksi generasi F4 persilangan TW 2 x PBC 473, TW2 x Jatilaba serta tetuanya meliputi varietas TW 2, PBC 473, dan Jatilaba, pupuk kompos, pupuk NPK, pupuk kandang ayam, herbisida dan insektisida. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah plastik semai, gembor, cangkul, timbangan analitik, papan nama, meteran, penggaris, jangka sorong, ajir bambu, tali rafia, alat tulis, dan kamera. Percobaan dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan perbesaran atau augmented design. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap semua tanaman cabai (metode single plant). Adapun pengamatan kuantitatif yaitu tinggi tanaman, tinggi dikotomus, diameter batang, umur berbunga, umur panen, diameter buah, panjang buah, tebal daging buah, panjang tangkai buah, bobot per buah, bobot buah per tanaman, jumlah buah per tanaman. Sedangkan untuk pengamatan kualitatif meliputi tipe pertumbuhan, posisi bunga, warna mahkota, tipe percabangan, warna daun, bentuk daun, bentuk tepi kelopak, bentuk pangkal buah, bentuk ujung buah, permukaan buah dan bentuk buah. Data hasil pengamatan kuantitatif dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam Uji F, heritabilitas arti luas yang diturunkan dari nilai Kuadrat Tengah, Ragam Genetik, Ragam Fenotip dan Kemajuan Genetik Harapan (KGH). Skoring pemilihan calon genotipe unggul didasarkan pada karakter-karakter kuantitatif yang berbeda nyata secara Uji F dan juga berdasarkan tingkat keseragaman populasinya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keragaman genetik pada populasi F5 didominasi oleh keragaman genetik yang luas pada setiap karakter produksi, kecuali pada karakter tebal daging buah yang memiliki keragaman genetik sempit. koefisien keragaman karakter tinggi tanaman, tinggi dikotomus, diameter batang, diameter buah, panjang buah, tebal daging buah, panjang tangkai buah dan bobot per buah memiliki nilai yang kecil dimana menunjukkan keadaan populasi tersebut homogen, sedangkan pada karakter bobot buah per tanaman dan jumlah buah per tanaman memiliki nilai koefisien keragaman yang besar dimana menunjukkan bahwa keadaan populasi masih heterogen. Nilai duga heritabilitas pada setiap populasi F5 untuk karakter hasil memiliki nilai heritabilitas tinggi, namun hanya pada karakter tebal daging buah yang memiliki nilai heritabilitas sedang. Kemajuan Genetik pada populasi F5 pada karakter hasil memiliki nilai KGH tinggi, namun pada karakter umur berbunga, umur panen dan panjang buah memiliki KGH cukup tinggi, sedangkan pada karakter tebal daging buah nilai KGH agak rendah. Populasi F5 yang terpilih berdasarkan karakter produksi yang dievaluasi dengan tetuanya didapatkan 3 genotipe unggul secara berurutan yaitu A1.26.19, B2.58.5 dan A4.92.14.

English Abstract

Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the important and economically valuable vegetable cash crops in Indonesia. Based on BPS (2015) data, the chili productivity from 2011 to 2015 each was 7.34 tons ha-1; 7.93 tons ha-1; 8.16 tons ha-1; 8.35 tons ha-1 and 8.43 tons ha-1, respectively. The chili productivity in Indonesia is still relatively very low because, according to Agustin et al., (2010), the actual potential of chili productivity can reach up to 20-40 tons ha-1. One of the efforts to obtain better and optimum chili plant productivity is the use of quality seeds. Quality seed of vigorous variety is one of the factors, which affects the success of agricultural production, with chili production being no exception (Syukur et al., 2012). Productivity is a quantitative characteristic which is controlled by polygenic genes thus requiring the selection to obtain a characteristic which promotes chili productivity enhancement. To obtain a vigorous variety, it is necessary to use genetic parameters including: estimate value of heritability, genetic variability and expected genetic advance. The objectives of the research were to estimate the heritability value, genetic variability and expected genetic advance on several characteristics of each F5 genotype of tested crossed chili plants and to select the more productive genotype than comparative variety to be tested further. The research was conducted in the experimental field of Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University in Kepuharjo village, Karangploso sub-district, Malang regency with the altitude being 600 m above sea level. It was conducted from February to June 2015. The materials used in this research were selected seeds from F4-Generation of TW 2 x PBC 473, TW2 x Jatilaba crossings, the parental ones including TW 2, PBC 473, Jatilaba varieties, compost, NPK fertilizer, chicken manure, herbicide and insecticide. The tools used were seeding plastics, water sprayer, hoe, analytical scale, board, meter, ruler, caliper, sticks made of bamboos, raffia, stationery and camera. The experiment was conducted using augmented design. The observation was conducted to all the chili plants (single plant method). The quantitative observation included plant height, dichotomous height, stem diameter, flowering age, harvesting age, fruit diameter, fruit length, fruit meat thickness, fruit stalk length, fruit weight (each), fruit weight per plant, fruit number per plant. The qualitative observation included growth type, flower position, corolla (petals) color, branching type, leaf color, leaf shape, calyx (sepals) margin shape, fruit point-tip shape, fruit tip shape, fruit surface and fruit shape. The quantitative observation data were analyzed using analysis of variance (F Test), heritability (wider meaning) differentiated from Mean Square value, Genetic Variability, Phenotypic Variability and Expected Genetic Advance. Vigorous would-be-genotype selection scoring was based on F Tested significantly different quantitative characteristics and also based on population uniformity level. The research results showed that genetic variability on F5 population was dominated by the wide genetic variability on each production characteristic, except for the fruit meat thickness characteristic which had narrow genetic variability. Variability coefficients of plant height, dichotomous height, stem diameter, fruit diameter, fruit length, fruit meat thickness, fruit point-tip length and fruit weight (each) had a low value indicating the homogenous population, while those of fruit weight per plant and fruit number per plant had a higher value indicating the relatively heterogenous population. Estimate value of heritability on every F5 population for productive characteristic had high heritability value, while only that for fruit meat thickness characteristic had mediocre heritability value. Genetic advance on F5 population for productive characteristic had high Expected Genetic Advance (EGA), however, those of flowering age, harvesting age and fruit length characteristics had relatively (quite) high Expected Genetic Advance, while that of fruit meat thickness characteristic had relatively (quite) low Expected Genetic Advance. Selected F5 population based on the productive character evaluated with the parental resulted in 3 vigorous genotypes i.e. A1.26.19, B2.58.5 and A4.92.14, respectively.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/603/051609255
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Sugiantoro
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131610
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