BKG

Rufaidah, Ranny (2016) Seleksi Enam Famili F5 Cabai Merah (Capsicum Annuum L.) Berdaya Hasil Tinggi Dan Tahan Layu Bakteri. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Cabai merah (Capsicum annuum L.) memiliki peranan penting dalam perekonomian Indonesia karena tanaman ini banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan bumbu masakan, bahan kosmetik dan obat. Produksi cabai merah menurut Anonim (2014) mengalami peningkatan dari 888.852 t pada tahun 2011 menjadi 954.310 t pada tahun 2012 dan menjadi 1.012.879 t pada tahun 2013. Meskipun mengalami peningkatan, produktivitas cabai merah masih rendah, yaitu hanya 6,93 t.ha-1. Salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan rendahnya produktivitas cabai adalah adanya serangan penyakit, terutama penyakit layu bakteri (Ralstonia solanacearum). Salah satu cara untuk mengatasi hal tersebut adalah dengan menggunakan benih unggul. Perakitan varietas cabai merah diawali dengan melakukan persilangan antara dua tetua yang memiliki sifat unggul kemudian dilanjutkan dengan seleksi. Tetua yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah TW2 dan Jatilaba. TW2 merupakan varietas lokal Brebes yang memiliki sifat tahan tungau, tahan rebah semai, produksi tinggi dan cenderung pedas sedangkan Jatilaba memiliki karakter tahan layu bakteri, produktivitas 15 – 17 t.ha-1 dan umur panen 70 – 80 hari setelah panen. Persilangan kedua tetua ini sudah dilakukan oleh Yulianah dan Kendarini (2011) dan dihasilkan populasi F1 yang memiliki kisaran agak rentan hingga tahan terhadap layu bakteri. Penelitian ini dilanjutkan oleh Widyawati (2014) yang menduga heritabilitas dan kemajuan genetik harapan pada populasi F2. Hasil dari penelitian tersebut adalah terdapat 6 famili terpilih hasil persilangan TW2 x Jatilaba, yaitu B2.1, B5.4, B5.6, B8.9, B9.1 dan B17.9. Penelitian selanjutnya dilakukan oleh Hastuti (2015) yang meneliti heritabilitas dan keragaman pada cabai merah generasi F3. Penelitian tersebut menghasilkan 10 tanaman terpilih pada famili B1, B3 dan B6; pada famili B2, B4 dan B7 masing-masing terdapat 7 tanaman terpilih dan terdapat 9 tanaman terpilih pada famili B5. Famili-famili terpilih tersebut kemudian digunakan sebagai bahan tanam untuk generasi F4. Hasil dari F4 yang kemudian digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah famili B2.58.9, B5.27.20, B6.42.13, B2.40.20, B2.46.6 dan B2.46.9. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menyeleksi famili berdaya hasil tinggi dan tahan layu bakteri dari keenam famili F5 cabai merah. Hipotesis yang diajukan adalah beberapa famili berdaya hasil tinggi dan tahan layu bakteri dari keenam famili F5 cabai merah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Desa Gesingan, Kecamatan Pujon, Kabupaten Malang dan di Lab Bakteriologi Jurusan HPT FP UB pada bulan Februari hingga Agustus 2015. Peralatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah plastik semai, gembor, cangkul, alat pelubang mulsa, meteran, tali rafia, timbangan analitik, papan penelitian, ajir bambu, jangka sorong, kamera, pipet, tabung reaksi, piset, petridish, L glass dan alat tulis. Bahan yang digunakan adalah pupuk kompos, pupuk NPK Mutiara (15:15:15), cocopeat, pupuk kandang ayam, pupuk kandang kambing, aquades, agar dan media TZC. Bahan tanam yang digunakan adalah 6 famili cabai merah generasi F5 (B2.40.20; B2.46.6; B2.46.9; B2.58.9; B5.27.20 dan B6.42.13) dan tetua (TW2 dan Jatilaba). ii Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Petak Berulang dengan perlakuan berupa 6 famili F5 cabai merah hasil persilangan TW2 x Jatilaba. Pengamatan dilakukan pada seluruh tanaman (single plant). Masing-masing famili ditanam sebanyak 60 tanaman sedangkan masing-masing tetua ditanam sebanyak 20 tanaman. Jarak tanam yang digunakan adalah 40 x 60 cm. Variabel pengamatan terdiri dari karakter kuantitatif, kualitatif dan penyakit. Karakter kuantitatif meliputi persentase tanaman tumbuh (%), bobot buah total (g), jumlah buah baik, bobot buah baik (g), jumlah buah jelek, bobot buah jelek (g), panjang buah (cm), diameter buah (cm), jumlah buah per tanaman, diameter batang (cm), umur berbunga (HST), umur panen (HST). Sementara itu, karakter kualitatif meliputi warna buah masak, bentuk buah dan tipe pertumbuhan tanaman. Parameter penyakit yang diamati adalah masa inkubasi, persentase daun layu dan intensitas penyakit. Data-data tersebut dianalisis dengan menggunakan heritabilitas arti luas, Koefisien Keragaman Genetik (KKG) dan Koefisien Keragaman Fenotip (KKF). Berdasarkan perhitungan yang dilakukan, didapatkan hasil bahwa keenam famili di generasi lima memiliki nilai KKG, KKF dan heritabilitas yang beragam. Famili terpilih berdasarkan produksi tinggi dan ketahanan terhadap layu bakteri adalah famili B6.42.13, B2.46.6 dan B5.27.20. Famili B6.42.13 memiliki bobot buah total per tanaman melebihi tetua dan kriteria ketahanan agak tahan terhadap layu bakteri sedangkan famili B2.46.6 dan B5.27.20 memiliki kriteria tahan terhadap layu bakteri.

English Abstract

Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has many utilities such as cooking spices, cosmetics and medicines. The production of red pepper by Anonymous (2014) improved from 888.852 t at 2011 became 954.310 t at 2012 and became 1.012.879 million t at 2013. Although it had improved, the productivity of red pepper is low, it’s only 6.93 t.ha-1. One factor that influences the low production is the appearance of disease attack, especially bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). One way to settle that problem is by using superior seed. Assembling red pepper variety was started by crossing two parents that have superior characteristics then continued with selection. Parents that were used in this research are TW2 and Jatilaba. TW2 was Brebes local variety that had resistant to mite, resistant to damping off , high yield and hot flavor. Jatilaba had characteristics resistant to bacterial wilt, productivity is about 15 – 17 t.ha-1 and harvest time about 70 – 80 day after plant. The crossing of these parents had been done by Yulianah and Kendarini (2011) and the F1 population as the result, had resistance criteria: rather susceptible until resistant to bacterial wilt. This research was continued by Widyawati (2014) that expecting heritability and genetic gain on F2 population. The result of this research there were six chosen families, they were B2.1, B5.4, B5.6, B8.9, B9.1 and B17.9. The next research was done by Hastuti (2015) that observing heritability and variability on F3 generation. There were 10 chosen plants in family B1, B3 and B6; on each families of B2, B4 and B7 there were 7 chosen plants and there were 7 chosen plants on family B5. These families on F3 then were used as the planting materials for generation F4. Result from F4 generation then were used for this research, there were family B2.58.9, B5.27.20, B6.42.13, B2.40.20, B2.46.6 and B2.46.9. The purpose of this research was: To select high yield and resistant family to bacterial wilt from six families of F5 red pepper. The hypothesis was there are some high yield and resistant families to bacterial wilt from each family of F5 red pepper. This research had been conducted at Gesingan Village, Pujon, Malang on February until August 2015. Tools that were used in this research were seedling plastics, watering can, hoe, mulch’s key punch, ruler, rafia rope, analytical scale, nameplate, bamboo stakes, vernier caliper, camera, pipette, test tube, tweezers, petridish, L glass and stationary. Materials that were used were compost, NPK Mutiara (15:15:15) fertilizer, coco peat, chicken manure, goat manure, aquades, agar and TZC media and planting materials, there were six families (B2.40.20; B2.46.6; B2.46.9; B2.58.9; B5.27.20 and B6.42.13) and parents (TW2 and Jatilaba). This research used Recurrent Plot Design with six families of F5 red pepper as the treatment. The observation was done to all plants (single plant). Each family was planted as many as 60 plants then each parent was planted as many as 20 plants. Planting spacing was 40 x 60 cm. Variable of observation were quantitative characters, qualitative characters and disease variable. Quantitative characters were: percentage of growing plants (%), total weight fruits per plant (g), number of iv marketable fruits, weight of marketable fruits (g), number of unmarketable fruits, weight of unmarketable fruits (g), total number of fruits per plant, length of fruit (cm), diameter of stem (cm), time of flowering (DAP) and time of harvest (DAP). Then, qualitative characters were: color of ripe fruit, fruit shape and type of plant growth. The disease variables that have been observed were: incubation period, percentage of wilting leaves and disease intensity. The data then were analyzed by heritability at broad sense, coefficient genetic variance (CGV) and coefficient phenotype variance (CPV). Based on calculations that have been done, the results were: six families of F5 have variation on CGV, CPV and heritability value. The chosen families based on high yield and resistant to bacterial wilt were family B6.42.13, B2.46.6 and B5.27.20. Family B6.42.13 had higher total fruit weight per plant than parents’ and had moderate resistant to bacterial wilt while families B2.46.6 and B5.27.20 had resistant criteria to bacterial wilt.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/347/ 051607046
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131338
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