BKG

Fredian, Herman (2016) Pengaruh Waktu Pemberian Mulsa Terhadap Produksi Wortel (Daucus Carota L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Wortel sudah termasuk komoditi utama yang mendapat perhatian dari pemerintah yang tercantum dalam program penelitian pengembangan hortikultura di Indonesia oleh Puslitbang Hortikultura tahun 2000-2005. Di Indonesia, wortel telah dibudidayakan dengan total panen luasan lahan 32.070 ha dengan produksi 512.112 ton (BPS, 2013). Beberapa kendala dalam budidaya wortel yaitu tidak tahan terhadap genangan air maupun kekeringan (Tinambunan, 2014). Selain itu, erosi juga dapat terjadi pada bedengan wortel sehingga mempengaruhi pembentukan umbi (Uhlig et al., 2014). Kendala tersebut dapat diatasi dengan pemberian mulsa pada lahan wortel. Mulsa adalah bahan untuk menutup tanah sehingga kelembaban dan suhu tanah sebagai media tanaman terjaga kestabilannya. Mulsa yang digunakan pada penelitian adalah mulsa jerami. Umumya mulsa jerami diberikan saat wortel sudah memiliki daun besar (2-3 daun sejati) dengan ketebalan sekitar 3 cm pada lahan (Mohler, 1993; Sarker, 1999; Bilalis et al, 2003; Ojowi, 2013). Tujuan dari penelitian adalah mengetahui dan mempelajari pengaruh dari waktu pemberian mulsa terhadap dua varietas wortel khususnya pada hasil umbi yang diperoleh. Hipotesis dari penelitian adalah pemberian mulsa pada 40 HST dapat meningkatkan hasil umbi yang dihasilkan pada masing-masing varietas wortel. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Dusun Borah, Desa Wiyurejo, Kecamatan Pujon, Kabupaten Malang pada bulan Mei hingga Agustus 2015. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah cangkul, gembor/sprayer, papan nama, label, penggaris, spidol, mulsa jerami, oven, leaf area meter (LAM), thermometer, soil moisture tester, timbangan, ember, dan kamera digital. Bahan yang digunakan adalah benih wortel varietas New Kuroda dan varietas Lokal. Pupuk yang digunakan ialah pupuk urea, SP36, KCl dan pupuk kandang. Penanggulangan hama penyakit dilakukan dengan menggunakan pestisida. Penelitian menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Kelompok, yang terdiri dari 2 kombinasi perlakuan, yaitu perlakuan varietas wortel dan perlakuan waktu pemberian mulsa jerami, masing-masing kombinasi perlakuan diulang dengan 4 kali ulangan sehingga terdapat 32 petak penelitian. Perlakuan pertama terdiri dari dua varietas, yaitu varietas New Kuroda dan varietas Lokal. Perlakuan kedua terdiri dari empat macam taraf waktu pemberian mulsa jerami, yaitu pemberian pada 10 hari setelah tanam (HST), 20, 30 dan 40 HST. Pengamatan dilakukan secara destruktif yang dilakukan pada saat tanaman berumur 54, 68, 82, 96 dan 110 HST (saat panen). Pelaksanaan penelitian meliputi pembersihan lahan, pengolahan tanah, pembuatan bedengan, pemupukan awal, penentuan jarak tanam, pemupukan dasar, penanaman, perawatan (penyiraman, penjarangan, penyiangan, pengguludan, pemupukan susulan, pengendalian hama dan penyakit), pemberian mulsa jerami dan panen umbi. Sedangkan untuk pengamatan yang akan dilakukan menggunakan komponen penunjang (suhu tanah dan kelembaban tanah), komponen pertumbuhan (panjang tanaman, jumlah daun dan luas daun), komponen hasil (panjang umbi, diameter umbi dan bobot segar umbi) dan gulma ii (dominansi gulma dan bobot kering gulma). Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam (uji F) pada taraf 5%. Apabila terdapat pengaruh nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan Uji BNT pada taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian mulsa jerami pada waktu yang berbeda mempengaruhi secara nyata pada kedua varietas terhadap tinggi tanaman, luas daun, panjang umbi, diameter umbi, bobot segar umbi, bobot kering umbi, tingkat populasi gulma dan bobot kering gulma. Pemberian mulsa tidak berpengaruh terhadap hasil umbi pada varietas New Kuroda dan Lokal, namun hasil yang tinggi ditunjukkan oleh varietas New Kuroda.

English Abstract

Carrot is the main commodity, which has attracted the government’s attention as attach on the program of horticultural research and development in Indonesia by the Center of Horticultural Research and Development (Puslitbang Hortilultura) in 2000-2005. In Indonesia, carrot has been cultivated by total harvest over the farming area of 32,070 ha with the production of 512,112 tons (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2013). Some obstacles in breeding carrot include not resistant to flooding or drought (Tinambunan, 2014). Besides that, erosion may also occur on seedbeds of carrot and affect formation of the tuber (Uhlig et al., 2014). Those obstacles can be overcome by applying mulches over the farming area of carrot. Mulches are covering materials used over the soil to maintain stability of moisture and temperature of the soil as planting medium. Mulches used in this research were straw (dried rice stalks) mulches. In general, the straw mulches are applied when the carrot has larger leaves (2-3 true leaves) with 3 cm in depth of the land (Mohler, 1993; Sarker, 1999; Bilalis et al, 2003; Ojowi, 2013). Objectives of the research were to find out and study the effect since the application of such mulches on two varieties of carrot, particularly on the obtained yield of tubers. Hypothesis of the research is that the application of mulches at 40 DAP (days after planting) could increase the tuber yields of each variety. The research was conducted at Borah Village, Wiyurejo District, Pujon Subdistrict, Malang Regency, from May to August 2015. Equipments used in this research included hoe, sprayer, name tag, label, ruler, tip-marker, straw mulches, oven, Leaf Area Meter (LAM), thermometer, soil moisture tester, scales, pail, and digital camera. Materials of the research included carrot seeds of New Kuroda and Local varieties. Fertilizers used urea, SP36, KCl, and stable manure. Pest and disease controls were done using pesticides. The research applied a Randomized Block Design method, which comprised of 2 combinations of treatment, such as carrot varieties and the appropriate time of straw mulches application, in which each combination of treatment was repeated by 4 replications, so that it provided 32 plots of research. The first treatment comprised of two varieties, New Kuroda and Local varieties. The second treatment included four periods of time for the application of straw mulches, such as 10 days after planting (DAP), 20, 30, and 40 DAP. Observation was done destructively when the crop’s ages were at 54, 68, 82, 96, and 110 DAP (during harvest time). Implementation of the research included land cleaning, soil cultivation, ridging, initial fertilizer application, determination of spacing, basic fertilizer application, planting, maintenance (watering, thinning, weeding, applying surjan system or pengguludan, intermediate fertilizer application, pest and disease controlling), applying straw mulches, and tuber harvesting. Meanwhile, the observation used the supporting components (temperature and moisture of the soil), growth components (length of crop, numbers of leaf and leaf area), yield components (length, diameter, and fresh weight of tubers), and weed (weed dominance and dry weight of weed). The iv obtained data was analyzed using analysis of variance (F-test) at level 5%. If any significant effect occurs, it will be continued with the Least Significant Difference (LSD) Test at level 5%. Results of the research showed that the application of straw mulches at different time has significantly affected on both varieties toward height of crop, leaf area, and length of tuber, diameter of tuber, fresh weight of tuber, dry weight of tuber, weed population level, and dry weight of weed. The application of such mulches may not affect on tuber yield of New Kuroda and Local varieties, but if it is compared with Local variety, New Kuroda will produce higher yield.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/179/ 051604727
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131154
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