BKG

Irawan, Joni (2016) Pengaruh Macam Bahan Organik Dan Pupuk N Pada Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Jagung Manis (Zea Mays Saccharata Sturt). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Jagung manis ( Zea mays saccharata Sturt) ialah komoditas pertanian yang sering dibudidayakan dan banyak mengandung gizi serta vitamin, begitu juga rasa manis pada biji jagung manis disebabkan oleh tingginya kadar gula pada endosperm biji jagung manis yang berkisar 13-14 %, sedangkan kandungan kadar gula jagung biasa hanya mencapai 2–3%. Menurut Tim Karya Mandiri (2010), produksi jagung manis di Indonesia masih rendah, rata-rata produksi 2,89 t ha-1 tongkol basah, sedangkan hasil jagung manis dapat mencapai 7-10 t ha-1 tongkol basah, ditambah lagi dengan laju impor jagung di Indonesia yang semakin meningkat dengan nilai impor sebesar 22,14% pada tahun 2010-2013 dan laju konsumsi jagung 5,14% per tahun (Dirjen Pengolahan dan Pemasaran Hasil Pertanian, 2014). Peningkatan produksi melalui aplikasi pupuk hijau dan kotoran ayam mampu meningkatkan hasil serta mampu mengurangi ketergantungan pupuk anorganik kususnya pupuk Nitrogen. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui kombinasi dosis terbaik dalam pemberian pupuk hijau Crotalaria juncea, pupuk kotoran ayam dan pupuk N pada pertumbuhan dan hasil jagung manis. Hipotesis yang diajukan ialah Pemberian pupuk hijau Crotalaria juncea dapat meningkatkan petumbuhan dan hasil jagung yang lebih baik dibanding dengan pupuk kotoran ayam. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di Desa Pendem, Kecamatan Junrejo, Kota Batu, Sejak bulan April – Juli 2015. Adapun alat dan Bahan yang digunakan ialah jangka sorong, timbangan analitik, meteran, oven, cangkul, gembor, penggaris, gunting, kamera digital, alat tulis menulis dan Leaf Area Meter (LAM). Sedangkan bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ialah: Benih Jagung manis Varietas Talenta , Crotalaria juncea L., pupuk kotoran ayam, EM4 (Effective Microorganisms) berbahan aktif Rhodopseudomonas spp., Lactobacillus spp., Saccharomyces spp., Actinomycetes, Aspergillus dan Penicilium. Insektisida yang digunakan mengandung bahan aktif Karbofuran 3 %. Pupuk Urea 300 kg/ha, SP-36 150 kg/ha, dan KCl 100 kg/ha.. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK). Terdiri dari 9 perlakuan yang diulang sebanyak 3 kali : Adapun perlakuannya sebagai berikut : Urea 100% ( 306,6 kg ha-1) (P1), Crotalaria juncea 25% (1 t ha-1) + Urea 75% (229,9 kg ha-1) (P2), Crotalaria juncea 50% (2,1 t ha-1) + Urea 50% (153,3 kg ha-1) (P3), Crotalaria juncea 75% (3,1 t ha-1) + Urea 25% (76,65 kg ha-1) (P4), Crotalaria juncea 100% (4,2 t ha-1) (P5), Pupuk Kotoran ayam 25% (1,3 t ha-1) + Urea 75% (229,9 kg ha-1) (P6), Pupuk kotoran ayam 50% (2,6 t ha-1) + Urea 50% (153,3 kg ha-1) (P7), Pupuk kotoran ayam 75% (3,9 t ha-1) + Urea 25% (76,65 kg ha-1) (P8), Pupuk kotoran ayam 100% (5,2 t ha-1) (P9). Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi pengamatan Destruktif, Non-Destruktif dan analisis pertumbuhan tanaman. Pengamatan Non-destruktif dilakuka mulai umur, 30 hst, 45 hst dan 60 hst yang meliputi tinggi tanaman dan diameter batang. Sedangkan pengamatan Destruktif meliputi luas daun. ii Pengamatan analisis pertumbuhan tanaman yang meliputi Indeks Luas Daun, Laju Pertumbuhan Relatif tanaman, bobot kering total tanaman. Pengamatan hasil meliputi diameter tongkol tanpa kelobot, panjang tongkol tanpa kelobot, bobot tongkol tanpa kelobot dan hasil ton ha-1. Data pengamatan dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam (Uji F) taraf 5 %. Apabila terdapat perbedaan yang nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT taraf 5 %. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian pupuk hijau Crotalaria juncea 50% + Urea 50%, memberikan respon yang lebih baik pada parameter pertumbuhan yaitu tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, luas. Pada parameter analisis pertumbuhan yang meliputi Indeks Luas Daun, bobot kering total tanaman, Laju Pertumbuhan Relatif tanaman. Sedangkan pada parameter hasil, pemberian pupuk hijau Crotalaria juncea 50 % + Urea 50%, memberikan respon yang baik terhadap bobot tongkol tanpa kelobot, diameter tongkol tanpa kelobot, panjang tongkol tanpa kelobot. Sedangkan perlakuan Crotalaria juncea 100% menghasilkan kadar gula tertinggi (19,10). Perlakuan Crotalaria juncea 50% + Urea 50% memberikan hasil panen per hektar yang lebih tinggi yaitu 21,95 t ha-1.

English Abstract

Sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt) is agricultural commodities which are often cultivated and content lots of nutrients and vitamins. The sweet taste of the sweet corn kernels is caused by highly sugar content in the kernel’s endosperm that ranged about 13-14%, while the sugar level of ordinary corn is only 2-3%. According to Tim Karya Mandiri (2010), sweet corn production in Indonesia is still low, the average production of sweet corn is about 2.89 t ha-1 of wet cobs, while the yield of sweet corn actually can reach 7-10 t ha-1 of wet cobs. In addition, the import of maize in Indonesia was rise at the import value around 22.14% in 2010-2013 and maize consumption rate is 5.14% per year (Dirjen Pengolahandan Pemasaran Hasil Pertanian, 2014). Increased production through the application of green manure and chicken manure can improve yield and reduce the dependence to inorganic fertilizers, especially Nitrogen fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to determine the best doses combination on application of Crotalaria juncea, chicken manure and N fertilizer on growth and yield of sweet corn. The hypothesis proposed is the application of Crotalaria juncea green manure can increase the growth and yield of corn better than the application of chicken manure This research had been conducted in Pendem Village, Junrejo District, Batu City, for 3 months, from April to July 2015. The tools and materials that had been used in this research include: caliper, analytic scales, meter, oven, hoe, watering can, ruler, scissors, digital camera, stationery and Leaf Area Meters (LAM). Materials that had been used in this research include: Sweet corn seed Talenta F1 Hybrid variety, Crotalaria juncea L. as a green manure, chicken manure, EM4 (Effective Microorganisms) from active materials Rhodopseudomonas spp., Lactobacillus spp., Saccharomyces spp., Actinomycetes, Aspergillus and Penicilium. Insecticide that was used contained the active materials of Carbofuran 3%, 300 kg.ha-1 Urea, 150 kg.ha-1 SP36 and 100 kg.ha-1 KCl. This study used a Randomized Design Group (RDG). The treatments consist of 9 treatments were repeated as many as three times: as for moderate as follows: 100% of Urea (306.6 kg ha-1) (P1), Crotalaria juncea 25% (1 t ha-1) + Urea 75% (229.9 kg ha-1) (P2), Crotalaria juncea 50% (2.1 t ha-1) + 50% Urea (153.3 kg ha-1) (P3), Crotalaria juncea 75% (3.1 t ha-1) + 25% Urea (76.65 kg ha-1) (P4), Crotalaria juncea 100% (4.2 t ha-1) (P5), Chicken manure Fertilizer 25% (1.3 t ha-1) + Urea 75% (229.9 kg ha-1) (P6), Chicken manure Fertilizer 50% (2.6 t ha-1) + 50% Urea (153.3 kg ha-1) (P7), Chicken manure Fertilizer 75% (3.9 t ha-1) + 25% Urea (76.65 kg ha-1) (P8), Chicken manure Fertilizer 100% (5.2 t ha-1) (P9). The research’s observations were destructive observation, Non-destructive observation and analysis of plant growth. Non-destructive observation had been done from age: 30, 45 and 60 dap that included plant’s height and the diameter of stem. While destructive observation included broad leaves. Analysis of plant growth observation included Broad Leave Index, Relative Growth Rate of the iv plant, total plant dry weight. Observation of yield include d the diameter of the cob without husk, the length of the cob without husk, the husk and the weight of cob without husk and yield in ton.ha-1. Observation data were analyzed using the analysis range (F-test) standard of 5%. If there is a real significance, then it will be continued with LSD test standard of 5%. The results of the study showed that application of green manure Crotalaria juncea 50% + Urea 50%, gave a better response on the growth parameters of plant’s height, diameter of stem. On analysis of growth parameter that included broad leave index, dry weight, the relative rate of total plant growth. Whereas, in the yield parameters, application of green manure Crotalaria juncea 50% + 50% Urea, gave a good response on weights cob without husk, the diameter of the cob without husk and the length of the cob without husk. Meanwhile 100% Crotalaria juncea treatment produced the highest sugar levels 19.10 Brix . Application of Crotalaria juncea 50% + 50% Urea gave the highest yield per hectare: 21.95 t ha-1.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/159/ 051604518
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131132
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