BKG

Hastanti, RinaDwi (2016) Pengaruh Pupuk Hijau Orok-Orok (Crotalaria Juncea) Dan Em 4 Pada Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Tanaman Padi (Oryza Sativa) Var. Ciherang. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Kebutuhan beras semakin meningkat seiring dengan pertambahan jumlah penduduk di Indonesia. Produksi padi Indonesia pada tahun 2014 mencapai 70,61 juta t ha-1, turun sekitar 0,67 juta t ha-1 dari produksi tahun 2013 yaitu 71,28 juta t ha-1 (BPS, 2014). Penurunan produksi padi ini disebabkan karena penurunan produktivitas padi sebesar 5,152 t ha-1 pada tahun 2013 menjadi 5,128 t ha-1 pada tahun 2014 (BPS, 2014). Hal ini akan menimbulkan permasalahan apabila tidak ada terobosan teknologi dalam peningkatan produksi padi, karena kebutuhan dalam negeri semakin meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk. Peningkatan produksi padi dapat dilakukan dengan upaya peningkatan produktivitas melalui upaya-upaya budidaya, salah satunya adalah pemupukan. Salah satu masalah yang menjadi penyebab produksi padi tidak optimal ialah pemupukan organik dan anorganik yang tidak seimbang yaitu lebih banyak dilakukan pupuk anorganik pada lahan sawah. Dampak dari kelebihan pemupukan anorganik dapat menyebabkan penurunan kadar bahan organik tanah pada lahan sawah sehingga lahan menjadi tidak optimal untuk dilakukan suatu usaha pertanian. Bahan organik tanah merupakan kunci utama kesehatan tanah baik fisik, kimia dan biologi. Menurut Sugito et al. (1995) menjelaskan bahwa kondisi lahan-lahan di Indonesia khususnya pulau jawa memiliki kandungan bahan organik yang sangat rendah, yaitu 60 % dari areal yang ada kandungan bahan organik kurang dari 1 %. Kadar bahan organik yang optimum untuk pertumbuhan tanaman sekitar 3-5 % (Adiningsih, 2005). Oleh sebab itu perlu dilakukan peningkatan kualitas tanah dengan upaya penambahan bahan organik pada tanah salah satunya pemberian pupuk hijau. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari pengaruh pemberian pupuk hijau orok-orok dan dekomposer pada pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman padi Varietas Ciherang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Maret sampai Agustus 2015 di Kelurahan Pendem, Kecamatan Junrejo, Kabupaten Batu. Keadaan geografis lahan penelitian terletak pada ketinggian 800 mdpl, suhu rata-rata – -rata berkisar antara 875-3000 mm per tahun. Alat yang digunakan meliputi timbangan analitik, meteran, oven, leaf area meter (LAM) dan kamera. Bahan yang digunakan meliputi benih padi varietas Ciherang, orok-orok (C.juncea), EM 4 (effective microorganisms 4), pupuk Anorganik (urea , SP36 dan Kcl). Penelitian ini dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) sederhana yang terdiri 5 level perlakuan dan diulang 4 kali, sehingga diperoleh 20 satuan percobaan. Adapun perlakuan tersebut meliputi : P1 = 100% Anorganik, P2 = 10 t ha-1 Orok-orok, P3 = 20 t ha-1 Orok-orok, P4 = 10 t ha-1 Orok-orok + EM 4, P5 = 20 t ha-1 Orok-orok + EM 4. Pengamatan pada tanaman padi dilakukan dengan mengambil tanaman contoh untuk setiap perlakuan pada saat tanaman berumur 14, 28, 42, 56 dan 70 HST. Pengamatan yang diamati meliputi pengamatan destruktif dan non destruktif. ii Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi pengamatan pertumbuhan dan pengamatan hasil. Pengamatan pertumbuhan meliputi : panjang tanaman, jumlah anakan, luas daun,berat kering total tanaman. Pengamatan komponen hasil meliputi : jumlah malai, jumlah bulir, bobot 1000 biji, persentase gabah isi, bobot gabah kering giling dan hasil gabah. Analisis pertumbuhan tanaman meliputi : Indeks luas daun. Data pengamatan yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis ragam (Uji F) dengan taraf nyata 5 %. Bila hasil pengujian diperoleh perbedaan yang nyata maka dilanjutkan dengan uji perbandingan antar perlakuan dengan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT) pada taraf 5 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa orok-orok 10 t ha-1 dan 20 t ha-1 mampu meningkatkan jumlah anakan masing-masing sebesar 3,68% dan 9,39%, indeks luas daun sebesar 11,71% dan 36,03%, jumlah malai sebesar 4,81% dan 6,31% serta jumlah bulir tanaman sebesar 22,21% dan 25,08% dibandingkan dengan perlakuan pupuk anorganik.10 t ha-1 orok-orok + EM 4 dan 20 t ha-1 Orok-orok + EM 4 menghasilkan jumlah anakan masing-masing sebesar 6,03% dan 14,49%, indeks luas daun sebesar 11,29% dan 14,78%, jumlah malai sebesar 10,94% dan 13,24% serta jumlah bulir sebesar 3,88% dan 15,84% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan tanpa menggunakan EM 4. Orok-orok 10 t ha-1 dan 20 t ha-1 + EM 4 mampu menghasilkan gabah masing-masing sebesar 5,14 t ha -1 dan 5,24 t ha -1 serta meningkatkan hasil gabah masing-masing sebesar 18,16% dan 45% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan tanpa EM 4.

English Abstract

Demand for rice has increased along with the number of people in Indonesia. Indonesias rice production in 2014 reached 70.61 million t ha-1, down about 0.67 million t ha-1 of production in 2013 is 71.28 million t ha-1 (CBS, 2014). A decline in rice production is due to a decrease in productivity of rice amounted to 5.152 t ha-1 in 2013 to 5,128 t ha-1 in 2014 (CBS, 2014). This will cause problems if there is no breakthrough technology in increasing rice production, because domestic demand is increasing in line with population growth. Increased rice production can be done by improving productivity through the efforts of cultivation, one of which is fertilization. One of the problems that cause rice production is not optimal organic and inorganic fertilizers are unbalanced ie more done inorganic fertilizers in paddy fields. The impact of excess inorganic fertilizers can lead to decreased levels of soil organic matter in paddy fields so that the land be not optimal to do an agricultural business. Soil organic matter is the key to good health of soil physical, chemical and biological. According to Sugito et al. (1995) explains that the condition of land in Indonesia, especially the island of Java have organic matter content is very low, 60% of the acreage available organic matter content of less than 1%. Optimum levels of organic matter for plant growth around 3-5% (Adiningsih, 2005). Therefore it is necessary to improve the quality of soil by adding organic matter to the efforts of the soil one green fertilizer. This study aimed to study the effect of green manure orok-orok and decomposers on the growth and yield of rice Varieties Ciherang. This research was conducted from March to August 2015 in the village Pendem, District Junrejo, Batu district. The geographical situation of research land situated at an altitude 800 meters above sea level, the average temperature of 21, - between 875-3000 mm per year. The tools used include analytical balance, meter, oven, leaf area meter (LAM) and a camera. Materials used include rice seed Ciherang, Crotalaria juncea (orok-orok), EM 4 (effective microorganisms 4), Inorganic fertilizers (urea,SP36 and Kcl). This study was conducted using a randomized block design (RAK) simple treatment that consists of 5 levels and repeated 4 times, in order to obtain 20 units of the experiment. The treatments include: P1 = 100% Inorganic, P2 = 10 t ha-1 orok-orok, P3 = 20 t ha-1 orok-orok, P4 = 10 t ha-1 orok-orok + EM 4, P5 = 20 t ha-1 orok-orok + EM 4. Observations on rice plants is done by taking a sample for each treatment plant at old plants 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days after planting. Observations observed destructive and non destructive observation. Observations made include observations of growth and observation results. Observations of growth include: the length of the plant, number of tillers, leaf area, total dry weight of the plant. Observations yield components include: number of panicles, grain number, weight of 1000 seeds, the percentage of filled grain, dry milled grain weight and grain yield. Analysis of iv plant growth include: leaf area index. Observation data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (F test) with a significance level of 5%. If the test results obtained by a real difference then continued with a comparison test between treatments with the test of Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5%. The results showed that orok-orok 10 t ha-1 and 20 t ha-1 is able to increase the number of tillers respectively by 3.68% and 9.39%, leaf area index by 11.71% and 36.03%, panicle amount of 4.81% and 6.31%, and the number of grain crops amounted to 22.21% and 25.08% compared to the fertilizer treatment anorganik.10 t -1 orok-orok + EM 4 and 20 t -1 orok-orok + EM 4 resulted in the number of tillers respectively by 6.03% and 14.49%, leaf area index by 11.29% and 14.78%, the number of panicles of 10.94% and 13.24%, and the number of grains of 3.88% and 15.84% higher than without using EM 4. Orok-orok 10 t ha-1 and 20 t ha-1 + EM 4 is capable of producing grain respectively by 5.14 t ha-1 and 5.24 t ha-1 and to increase grain yield respectively by 18.16% and 45% higher compared to the treatment without EM 4.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/135/ 051604127
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131106
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