BKG

Ningsih, RahmawatyAwaliyah (2016) Pembungaan Mangga Hasil Persilangan Arumanis 143 Dengan Podang Urang Di Musim Kemarau. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Perubahan iklim terjadi di berbagai belahan dunia, sehingga menyebabkan perubahan pola curah hujan, kenaikan permukaan air laut, dan suhu udara, serta peningkatan kejadian iklim ekstrim berupa kekeringan. Kekeringan merupakan dampak serius perubahan iklim yang dihadapi masyarakat dunia, termasuk Indonesia terutama dalam bidang pertanian. Salah satu tanaman yang terkena dampak perubahan iklim tersebut yang berupa kekeringan ialah tanaman mangga. Diantara penyebab kekeringan yaitu kekurangan supply air di daerah sistem perakaran yang mengakibatkan terganggunya metabolisme tanaman termasuk tanaman mangga. Tanaman mangga tidak dapat tumbuh dengan baik apabila mengalami kekeringan atau kekurangan pasokan air terutama pada fase pembungaan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mempelajari pengaruh kekeringan terhadap pembentukan bunga mangga. Hipotesis dari penelitian ini ialah kekeringan dapat mempengaruhi pembentukan bunga mangga. Penelitian dilakukan di kebun milik Pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Timur, Dinas Pertanian UPT Pengembangan Benih Hortikultura, Jl. Urip Sumoharjo NO.33, Pohjentrek, Pasuruan serta di Laboratorium Pemuliaan Tanaman, Bioteknologi dan Kultur Jaringan, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei sampai Nopember 2015. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ialah alat tulis, alat penghitung (counter), kamera digital, timbangan digital, oven, cawan petridis, plastik, cangkul, termometer maksimum minimum, termometer basah kering, label, sendok, kaca preparat, kutek bening, mortar, pastle, mikroskop, selotip bening, gunting, kalkulator, amplop coklat, penggaris dan kain. Bahan yang digunakan ialah air, sampel tanah, daun mangga, dan pohon pohon mangga hasil persilangan AP dan PA sebanyak 76 pohon. Metode yang digunakan ialah observasi dengan mengamati perkembangan tanaman serta mengukur kadar air tanah, jumlah stomata yang membuka dan menutup serta kandungan air daun. Parameter yang diamati ialah jumlah tanaman yang berbunga, jumlah tanaman yang buah, jumlah tanaman yang tidak berbunga, jumlah tanaman yang tidak berbuah, kepadatan stomata, jumlah stomata yang membuka dan menutup, kadar air tanah, dan kandungan air daun. Pengambilan sampel sesuai dengan denah yang ada pada peta tanaman kondisi tahun 2015. Data yang didapat dari penelitian ini disajikan dalam bentuk tabel. Teknik penyajian data ini secara kuantitatif yang dilakukan dengan teknik statistik deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa progeni yang berbunga berjumlah 38 yaitu 50% dan progeni yang yang berbuah besar berjumlah 17 yaitu 22,37% dari 76 tanaman hasil persilangan AP dan PA. Dari 38 tanaman yang berbunga dikelompokkan menjadi 3 yaitu berbunga awal (Mei dan Juni), berbunga normal (Juli), dan berbunga akhir (Agustus dan September). Tanaman yang berbunga awal ada 7 progeni, berbunga normal 25 progeni, dan berbunga akhir 6 progeni. Sisanya yaitu sebanyak 38 progeni merupakan progeni yang tidak tahan kering. ii Rata-rata suhu udara didapatkan hasil yang fluktuatif yaitu antara 28-370 C dapat mengakibatkan proses adaptasi pada organ bunga menjadi kurang produktif. Rata-rata kelembaban udara didapatkan hasil sebesar 71-81%. Curah hujan pada musim pembungaan mangga tidak terjadi hujan yaitu mulai bulan Mei hingga Agustus 2015. Terdapat 9,21% tanaman yang mempunyai hubungan antara kadar air tanah dengan mangga yang bebunga yaitu pada kode tanaman AP 14.1, AP 23.2, AP 53.4, P, PA 14.3, dan PA 17.2. Terdapat 7,89% tanaman yang mempunyai hubungan antara jumlah stomata membuka dengan mangga yang berbunga yaitu pada kode tanaman AP 40.2, AP 45.3, AP 5, AP 54.2, AP 59.1, PA 12, dan P. Terdapat 10,52% tanaman yang mempunyai hubungan antara kerapatan stomata dengan mangga yang berbunga yaitu pada kode tanaman AP 40.2, AP 45.2, AP 45.3, AP 54.2, AP 59.1, AP 72.2, AP 14.3, dan AP 17.2. Terdapat 3 tanaman yaitu sebesar 3,95% tanaman yang mempunyai hubungan antara kandungan air daun dengan mangga yang bebunga yaitu pada kode tanaman P, PA 17.1, dan PA 4.1. Kadar air tanah tidak ada hubungannya dengan kandungan air daun, jumlah stomata yang membuka, dan kerapatan stomata sehingga faktor-faktor tersebut tidak konsisten terhadap nomor-nomor progeni yang berbunga.

English Abstract

Climate change is happening in various parts of the world, causing changes in rainfall patterns, rising sea levels and temperatures, as well as an increase in extreme climatic events such as drought. Drought is a serious impact of climate change facing the world community, including Indonesia, especially in agriculture. One of the plants affected by climate change in the form of drought is the mango crop. Among the causes of drought as lack of water supply in the area of the root system which resulted in disruption of the metabolism of plants including mango crop. Mango plants can not grow well when experiencing drought or water shortages, especially in the flowering phase. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of drought on the establishment of mango flowers. The hypothesis of this study is that the drought may affect the formation of mango flowers. The study was conducted at the farm owned by the East Java Provincial Government, Department of Agriculture Seed Development Unit Horticulture , Jl. Urip Sumoharjo 33, Pohjentrek, Pasuruan and in the Laboratory of Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Tissue Culture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya. The research was conducted from May to November 2015. The tools used in the study was the stationery, counter, digital cameras, digital scales, oven, dish petridis, plastic, hoes, thermometer maximum minimum, thermometer dry wet, labels, spoons, glass preparations, nail polish clear, mortar, pastle, microscopes, transparent tape, scissors, calculator, brown envelope, ruler and fabric. Materials used are water, samples of soil, leaf, mango, and mango trees of crossbred AP and PA as many as 76 trees. The method used is the observation by observing the development of the plant as well as to measure the moisture content of the soil, the number of stomata opening and closing as well as the water content of leaves. The observed parameters are the number of flowering plants, the number of fruit crops, the number of plants that do not bloom, the number of plants that do not bear fruit, stomatal density, the number of stomata open and close, soil moisture and water content of leaves. Sampling in accordance with the plan that is present on the map 2015 crop conditions. The data obtained from this study are presented in tabular form . This data presentation techniques quantitatively done by using descriptive statistics. The results showed that the flowering progeny total 38 or 50% and the progeny fruitful huge amounts to 17 ie 22.37 % of the 76 plants produced by crossing the AP and PA. From 38 flowering plants are grouped into 3 early flowering (May and June), normal flowering (July), and late flowering (August and September). Plants that bloom early was 7 progeny, 25 progeny was normal flowering and late flowering was 6 progeny. The rest is as much as 38 progeny are not drought resistant progeny. The average air temperature fluctuating results obtained are between 28-370 C can lead to a process of adaptation to the floral organs become less productive. The average relative humidity of 71-81 % is obtained. Rainfall in mango flowering season is no rain from May to August 2015. There is a 9.21% of plants that have a relationship between the soil water iv content with mango bloomed ie in plant code AP 14.1, AP 23.2, AP 53.4, P, PA 14.3 and PA 17.2. There is a 7.89% of plants that have a relationship between the number of open stomata with mango flowering plant that is in the code AP 40.2, AP 45.3, AP 5, AP 54.2, AP 59.1, PA 12, and P. There are 10.52 % of the crop that has the relationship between the density of stomata with mango flowering plant that is in the code AP 40.2 , AP 45.2, AP 45.3, AP 54.2, AP 59.1, AP 72.2, AP 14.3 , and AP 17.2. There are three plants (3.95%) that have a relationship between the water content of leaves with mango flowering plant that is in the code P, PA 17.1, and PA 4.1. Soil water content had no corelation with the water content of leaves, the number of open stomata and the density of stomata that these factors are not consistent with the number of flowering progeny.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/132/ 051604124
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131103
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