BKG

Inaiyah, Asma (2016) Pengaruh Defoliasi Daun Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Kedelai (Glycine Max L.) Varietas Detam-1 Dan Grobogan. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Kedelai bukan merupakan tanaman asli Indonesia. Menurut Sumarno dan Adisarwanto (1996), kedelai sudah dibudidayakan oleh petani di Pulau Jawa sejak abad XVI sehingga saat ini kedelai termasuk tanaman pangan penting setelah padi dan jagung. Penyebaran tanaman kedelai ke Indonesia berasal dari daerah Manshukuo menyebar ke daerah Mansyuria, Jepang (Asia Timur) dan negara-negara lain di Amerika dan Afrika. Dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk yang mengetahui pentingnya nilai gizi makanan, mendorong terjadinya peningkatan kebutuhan kedelai dengan tingkat konsumsi sebesar 8,12 kg per kapita tiap tahun (Sudaryanto dan Swastika, 2007). Selain itu, kedelai memiliki manfaat sebagai salah satu sumber protein dan kedelai dapat diolah menjadi berbagai produk pangan sehingga menyebabkan permintaan kedelai di Indonesia semakin meningkat. Kenaikan kebutuhan kedelai tidak dapat dimbangi oleh jumlah produksi di dalam negeri yang hanya dapat memenuhi kebutuhan sebesar 30-40% sehingga 60-70% pemerintah harus impor. Kenyataan lain yang terjadi bahwa kebutuhan impor kedelai ini setiap tahunnya terus meningkat sehingga mencapai 2,5 juta t ha-1 pada tahun 2013 (BPS, 2014). Ketergantungan kebutuhan kedelai dari kegiatan impor ini apabila dilihat dari segi konsep ketahanan pangan akan melemahkan posisi negara Indonesia dalam kancah perdagangan dunia dan daya saing dengan negara lain. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mempelajari dan mengetahui respon dua varietas kedelai terhadap perbedaan tingkat defoliasi daun. Hipotesis yang diajukan ialah setiap varietas mempunyai respon yang berbeda terhadap tingkat defoliasi dan didapatkan indeks luas daun optimum yang berbeda pada tiap varietas. Penelitian telah dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei hingga Juli 2015 di lahan pertanian Desa Pendem, Kec. Junrejo, Batu, yang terletak pada ± 560 meter dpl, dengan suhu rata-rata 230-300 C. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian antara lain garu, cangkul, gunting, penggaris, meteran, gembor, tugal, alat tulis, oven, timbangan analitik, LAM, amplop, dan kamera. Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian antara lain benih kedelai varietas Detam-1 dan Grobogan, tali rafia, pupuk Urea, SP-36 dan KCl. Penelitian menggunakan percobaan faktorial dengan dasar Rancangan Acak Kelompok yang terdiri 2 faktor, yaitu varietas kedelai dan persentase defoliasi daun. Varietas kedelai terdiri dari 2 taraf yaitu V1 = varietas Detam-1 dan V2 = varietas Grobogan. Persentase defoliasi daun dengan 4 taraf yaitu D0 = 0% Defoliasi (kontrol), D1 = 10% Defoliasi, D2 = 20% Defoliasi, dan D3 = 30% Defoliasi. Total kombinasi perlakuan adalah 8 kombinasi perlakuan. Tiap perlakuan dilakukan 3 kali ulangan sehingga terdapat 24 petak percobaan. Penempatan perlakuan dalam tiap kelompok dilakukan secara acak. Parameter yang diamati adalah komponen pertumbuhan meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, luas daun, indeks luas daun, ii jumlah bunga, dan intensitas cahaya. Komponen hasil meliputi jumlah polong isi per tanaman, jumlah biji per polong, bobot 100 biji, bobot segar polong, bobot segar biji, bobot kering polong, bobot kering biji dan hasil panen (t ha-1) . Data yang diperoleh dari hasil pengamatan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis ragam atau uji F pada taraf 5% untuk mengetahui pengaruh diantara perlakuan apabila terdapat pengaruh nyata maka akan dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terjadi interaksi antara perlakuan varietas kedelai dengan defoliasi daun terhadap luas daun, indeks luas daun pada pengamatan umur 50 HST, dan bobot kering tanaman. Varietas Detam-1 lebih respon terhadap defoliasi daun dibandingkan dengan varietas Grobogan. Hal ini dapat dilihat berdasarkan hasil semua parameter pengamatan bahwa varietas Detam-1 memiliki respon pertumbuhan dan hasil yang lebih baik dibanding varietas Grobogan. Berdasarkan hasil parameter pengamatan pada komponen hasil bahwa perlakuan defoliasi D1 (10%) dengan indeks luas daun sebesar 4,53 didapatkan hasil panen kedelai yang paling tinggi yaitu 2,15 t ha-1 diantara perlakuan defoliasi dan indeks luas daun lainnya. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan defoliasi D1 (10%) dapat meningkatkan hasil panen sebesar 26% dibandingkan perlakuan D0 (tanpa defoliasi).

English Abstract

Soybean was not an Indonesian native plant. According to Sumarno and Adisarwanto (1996), soy has been cultivated by farmers on the island of java since the XVI Century, that makes soybean becomes important food crop after rice and corn nowadays. The spread of the soybean plant in Indonesia is coming from manshukuo regions then spread to the Mansyuria Regions, Japan (Eastern Asia) and other countries in america and africa. The number of people who know the importance of the nutritional value of food, which is increasing, has been encouraged the increase of soybean demands with the consumption level of soy 8,12 kg per capita each year (Sudaryanto and Swastikas, 2007). In addition, the benefits of soy as one source of protein and soybeans can be processed into a variety of food products causing increases in soybean demand in Indonesia. The increase of soybean needs cannot be offset by the number of production in the country that can only meet the needs as 30-40%, so the government must imports it about 60-70%. Another fact occurring that need for imports of soybeans has continue to rise every year so that reach 2.5 million t ha-1 in 2013 (BPS, 2014). This dependency of soybean needs from import activity if seen from the perspective of the food security concept would weaken the position of Indonesia country in domains of the world trade and competitiveness with other countries. The purpose of this research is to learn and know the response from two kind varieties of soybeans to the different levels of leaf defoliation. The hypothesis that proposed is every variety have a different response to the level of defoliation and obtained that the optimum leaf area index is different in each of the varieties. Research carried out in May to July 2015 at Pendem farm village, District Junrejo, Batu, which located at ± 560 meter atsl (above the sea level), with an average temperature of 23-300 C. An instrument used in research among others a rake, a hoe, scissors, a ruler, gage, gembor, tugal, stationery, an oven, analytic scale, LAM, an envelope, and the camera. Material which used in research such as Detam-1 soybean seed varieties and Grobogan, a rope of the raffia, Urea fertilizer, SP-36 and KCl. The research uses factorials experiment with the randomized block design as the base which contains of two factors, namely the varieties of soybeans and the percentage of leaf defoliation. Varieties of soybeans consist of two level, which is V1= Detam-1 varieties and V2 = Grobogan varieties .The percentage of four level leaf defoliation is D0 = 0% Defoliation (control), D1 = 10% Defoliation, D2 = 20% Defoliation, and D3 = 30% Defoliation. The total of combination treatment is 8. Each treatment performed three times remedially so that there are 24 plot experiment. The deployment of treatment in each group carried out randomly. The parameters which observed are the components of growth include the plant high, number of leaf, leaf area, leaf area index, number of flowers and light interception. Component of the iv results include the number of pods per plant, the number of seeds per pod, the weight of 100 seeds, the fresh weight of pod, the fresh weight of seed, the weight of dried pods, and weight of dried seeds and harvest (t ha-1). Data which obtained from the results of observations are analyzed using a variance analysis or F test at 5% to know the influence among treatment if there are real influence on it, it will be continued with Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 5% level. The results of research show that have been interaction between soybean varieties treatment with leaf defoliation on leaf area, leaf area index in 50 day after planting, and weight of dried plant. Detam-1 variety have more responded on leaf defoliation then Grobogan variety. There was indicate from the parameters number of leaf, leaf area, leaf area index, weight of dried leaf, and weight of dried pods that Detam-1 variety have more amont then Grobogan. There was indicate that all parameter observation was Detam-1 variety have responded growth and yield better then Grobogan. In yield observation that defoliation D1 (10%) treatment with leaf area index 4,53 to have harvest of soybean highest is 2,15 t ha-1 between defoliation treatment and leaf area index than the other.There was indicate that defoliation D1 (10%) treatment can increase 26% harvest of soybean than defoliation D0 (control) treatment.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/130/ 051604122
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131101
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