BKG

Lubis, PerryAnsyari (2015) Pengaruh Jenis Dan Ketebalan Mulsa Dalam Mempertahankan Kandungan Air Tanah Dan Dampaknya Terhadap Tanaman Kedelai (Glycine Max (L.) Di Lahan Kering. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Lahan kering ialah hamparan lahan yang tidak pernah tergenang atau digenangi air selama periode dari sebagian besar waktu dalam setahun atau sepanjang tahun (Haryati, 2002). Apabila ditinjau berdasarkan luas lahannnya, luas lahan kering di Indonesia masih cukup luas, yaitu mencapai 144 juta ha. Sementara yang diusahakan baru mencapai 53 juta ha, sehingga masih terbuka peluang yang cukup luas untuk mengembangkan lahan tersebut (Suriadikarta, 2005). Namun demikian, Lahan kering memiliki permasalahan antara lain ketersediaan air tanah, karena lahan kering hanya bergantung pada air hujan. Hal ini menyebabkan tanah kekurangan air selama masa tanam pada bulan kemarau. Perlu dilakukan suatu teknik konservasi air untuk meningkatkan masuknya air dalam tanah dan mengurangi penguapan evaporasi serta mempertahankan kadar airnya. Kedelai (Glycine max L.) adalah salah satu komoditas utama kacang-kacangan yang menjadi andalan nasional karena merupakan sumber protein nabati penting untuk diversifikasi pangan dalam mendukung ketahanan pangan nasional. Kebutuhan akan kedelai terus meningkat dari tahun ke tahun seiring dengan peningkatan jumlah penduduk, sementara produksi yang dicapai belum mampu mengimbangi kebutuhan tersebut. Peningkatan produktivitas kedelai dapat dilakukan dengan cara pengelolaan tanaman secara intensifikasi pada lahan kering. Tetapi pengelolaan tanaman dilahan kering umumnya terkendala oleh ketersediaan air. Oleh karena adanya permasalahan tersebut maka salah satu upaya untuk memperbaiki masalah di lahan kering ini dengan cara menggunakan penambahan mulsa organik (jerami, sekam, dan rumput gajah) dalam masa penanaman. Adapun tanaman yang digunakan sebagai indikator adalah tanaman kedelai(Glycine max (L.). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian mulsa organik terhadap ketersediaan air tanah, dan laju evaporasi. Mempelajari pengaruh pemberian penutupan mulsa organik terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman kedelai.Penelitian ini bermanfaat untuk menguji pengaruh tiga jenis mulsa (jerami, sekam, dan rumput gajah) terhadap simpanan air dalam tanah. Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah Mulsa sekam dapat mempertahankan ketersediaan air tanah dan menurunkan laju evaporasi sehingga meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman kedelai dilahan kering. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustusn 2014 – Januari 2015 di kebun percobaan Universitas Brawijaya, terletak di desa Jatikerto, kecamatan Kromengan kabupaten Malang. Lokasi ini berada paada ketinggian 285 m dpl. Suhu antara 300C - 330C. sedangkan curah hujan rata – rata 100 mm/bulan. Alat yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah alat pengolah tanah, timbangan analitik, termometer suhu udara, soil moisture tester,cangkul, penggaris, tali rafia, label, timbangan, oven, Leaf Area Meter (LAM), kamera digital. Sedangkan bahan yang digunakan ialah benih kedelai varietas Wilis, pupuk anorganik terdiri dari Urea (46% N), KCL (50% K2O), SP-36 (36% P205), Insektisida, mulsa v jerami padi, mulsa sekam padi, mulsa plastik bening, mulsa plastik perak dan mulsa plastik hitam. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK). Perlakuan yang diberikan ialah kombinasi jenis dan ketebalan mulsa yang terdiri dari 10 taraf, macam perlakuan adalah P0 = tanpa mulsa (kontrol), P1 = mulsa jerami dengan ketebalan 4 cm, P2 = mulsa jerami dengan ketebalan 6 cm (2,856 kg/petak) P3 = mulsa jerami dengan ketebalan 8 cm, P4 = mulsa sekam dengan ketebalan 4 cm, P5 = mulsa sekam dengan ketebalan 6 cm, P6 = mulsa sekam dengan ketebalan 8 cm, P7= mulsa plastik bening, P8 = mulsa plastik perak, P9 = mulsa plastik hitam, Percobaan terdiri dari 10 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan, sehingga diperoleh 30 satuan perlakuan penempatan masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan dengan secara acak. Pengamatan tanaman dilakukan secara destruktif, dengan mengambil 2 tanaman contoh untuk setip kombinasi perlakuan yang dilakukan pada saat tanaman berumur 20 hst, 40 hst, 60 hst, 80 hst, dan saat panen (90 hst).Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi Komponen Pertumbuhan yaitu: Luas daun, Jumlah cabang pertanaman. Bobot kering total tanaman. Komponen hasil meliputi : Jumlah polong per tanaman. Bobot polong per tanaman. Bobot biji per tanaman. Bobot 100 biji per tanaman. Hasil per hektar. Indeks panen (IP). Pengamatan lingkungan : Suhu tanah pada kelembapan antara 0 sampai 20 cm. Kelembapan tanah. Data yang diperoleh dari hasil pengamatan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis ragam (uji F) pada taraf 5%. Apabila terdapat perbedaan yang nyata, maka dilanjutkan uji Duncan pada taraf 5 %. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi mulsa pada tanaman kedelai terbukti berpengaruh nyata terhadap suhu pagi maupun siang, kelembaban tanah, luas daun, jumlah cabang, bobot kering total tanaman, bobot 100 biji, bobot kering dan hasil biji per hektar. Aplikasi mulsa sekam terbukti mampu untuk menghasilkan suhu tanah terendah di pagi hari yaitu 22,670C, kelembaban tertinggi di pagi maupun di siang hari yaitu 66,00 % dan 70,00 % dan rata-rata luas daun terluas yaitu 390,36 cm2 dibandingkan dengan aplikasi mulsa lainnya. Aplikasi berbagai jenis mulsa tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap produksi tanaman kedelai (jumlah polong per tanaman, bobot polong pertanaman, bobot biji pertanaman, berat panen dan indeks panen) kecuali 100 biji, bobot kering, dan hasil biji per hektar. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa aplikasi mulsa sekam dapat memperbaiki kondisi lingkungan disekitar tanaman, dan meningkat hasil dan produksi tanaman kedelai.

English Abstract

Dry land is a land that never stagnant or flooded during the period of most of time in a year or around a year (Haryati, 2002). If we reviewed based on land area, dry land in Indonesia is still quite broad reach 144 million ha. Meanwhile, the land that organized recently reached 53 million ha, so the opportunities to develop the land still open (Suriadikarta, 2005). However, dry land have problem like availability of groundwater, because of the dry land is only depending on rain water. So it causes soil water shortage during the period of planting in drought. Water conservation techniques is needed to increase the influx of water in the soil and reduces evaporation of the water levels as well as maintaining evaporating. Soybean (Glycine max l.) is one of the main commodity of the nuts who became the mainstay of the national vegetable source of protein because it is important to diversification food in support of national food security. Requirement for soybeans continues to increase every year hand with increasing population, while production reached has not been able to compensate for those requirement. Increased productivity of soybeans can be done by intensification of crop management on dry land. But the management of the plant in a dry land generally constrained by the availability of water. Due to these problems, one attempt to correct the problem in this dry land by using the addition of organic mulch (straw, chaff, clear plastic mulch, silver plastic mulch and black plastic mulch) in the planting. As for the plant that used as an indicator plant is soybeans (Glycine max l.). This research aims to know the influence of organic mulch against granting the availability of groundwater, and the rate of evaporation and to learn about the influence of organic mulch against the closure of the granting of plant growth of soybeans. This research is useful to test the influence of three types of mulch (straw, chaff, clear plastic mulch, silver plastic mulch and black plastic mulch) against avaibility of water in the soil. The hypothesis of this research is to chaff can maintain the availability of ground water and lowered the rate of evaporation which increases the growth and yield of soybean in dry land. Research implemented in August 2014 to January 2015 in trial gardens University of Brawijaya, that located in the village of Jatikerto, sub-district Kromengan district of Malang. This location was as the height of 285 m above sea level. Temperature between 30°C-33°C. While the rainfall averages above 100 mm/month. Tools that used in this research is a tool of soil processing, analytic scales, thermometers, air temperature, soil moisture tester, hoe, a ruler, a rope, labels, scales, ovens, Leaf Area Meters (LAM), a digital camera. While the material used is soybean seed varieties Wilis, inorganic fertilizers consisting of Urea (46% N), KCL (50% K2O), SP-36 (P205 36%), insecticides, straw, chaff, clear plastic mulch, silver plastic mulch and black plastic mulch. The methods used in this study was a Randomized Design Group (RAK). Treatment that is given is a combination of different types and thickness of mulch that consists of 10 levels, the range of treatments is P0 = without mulch vii (control), P1 = mulch of straw with a thickness of 4 cm, P2 = mulch of straw with a thickness of 6 cm, P3 = mulch of straw with a thickness of 8 cm, P4 = mulch husk with a thickness of 4 cm, P5 = husk mulching with a thickness of 6 cm, P6 = mulch husk with a thickness of 8 cm, P7 = clear plastic mulch, P8 = silver plastic mulch, P9 = black plastic mulch. The experiment consists of 10 treatments and 3 replicates, so that the retrieved 30 units of each placement treatmentis done by randomly. Observation of the plant was done destructive, by taking the 2 plants for example has a combination treatment that is done at the time the plant is 20, 40, 60, 80 day after planting and harvest time (90 day after planting). Observations made include components of growth, namely: Broad leaf, branch number of each crop. Total dry weight of the plant. Component results include: the number of pods per plant, weight of pods per plant, seed weight per plant, weight of 100 seeds per plant, yield per hectare, harvest index (IP). Environment monitoring: soil Temperature at the humidity between 0 to 20 cm and soil humidity. Data obtained from the results of observations are analyzed using the analysis range (F test) at the 5% level. If there is a real difference, then a test resumes Duncan at 5% level. The results showed that the application of mulch on soybean plants proved significant different to the morning and afternoon temperatures, soil moisture, leaf area, number of branches, total dry weight of the plant, 100 seed weight, dry weight and seed yield per hectare. Chaff application proved able to produce the lowest ground temperature in the morning that is 22.67 0C, the highest humidity in the morning and in the afternoon are 66.00% and 70.00% and average leaf area this is 390.36 cm2 than the other mulch application. Application of various types of mulch did not significantly affect in soybean production (number of pods per plant, pod weight cropping, crop seed weight, harvest weight and harvest index) except 100 seeds, dry weight, and seed yield per hectare. This is proves that the chaff application can improve environmental conditions around the plants, and increased yield and soybean crop production.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/903/ 051509583
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130952
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