BKG

Hazmy, ZaimDzoel (2015) Rejuvenasi Dan Karakterisasi Morfologi Plasma Nutfah Bunga Matahari (Helianthus Annuus L. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Bunga matahari merupakan tanaman penghasil minyak makan (edible oil) penting dunia dan menempati posisi terbesar keempat dunia setelah minyak rapa (rapeseed), kedelai dan kelapa sawit (Gandhi, Heesacker, Freeman, Argyris, Bradford, dan Napp, 2005). Tanaman bunga matahari berpotensi sebagai tanaman budidaya yang menghasilkan minyak dengan asam lemak tak jenuh yang tinggi dan protein yang tinggi, serta juga dapat untuk dijadikan bahan makanan seperti snack, biscuit, cereal¸ dan karena keindahan bunganya dapat juga dijadikan sebagai tanaman hias. Upaya peningkatan produksi dan produktivitas tanaman bunga matahari diperlukan suplai benih unggul bermutu ditinjau dari segi aspek fisik, fisiologis, dan genetik. Dalam rangka menghasilkan varietas unggul baru yang memiliki produktivitas dan stabilitas tinggi, dibutuhkan sumber-sumber gen dari sifat-sifat tanaman yang mendukung tujuan tersebut. Sumber-sumber gen dari sifat-sifat tersebut perlu diidentifikasi dan ditemukan pada plasma nutfah melalui kegiatan karakterisasi untuk mendapatkan informasi terkait plasma nutfah dan kegiatan rejuvenasi sebagai upaya pelestarian plasma nutfah tersebut. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk merejuvenasi dan mengkarakterisasi aksesi bunga matahari sebagai upaya untuk menjaga kelestarian aksesi dan mendapatkan informasi karakter aksesi yang dikoleksi, serta untuk mengetahui potensi dari masing-masing aksesi tanaman bunga matahari. Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan karakteristik morfologi diantara aksesi bunga matahari yang diamati. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari hingga Agustus 2015 di kelurahan Dadaprejo, kecamatan Junrejo, Kota Batu dengan ketinggian tempat ± 560 mdpl dan suhu minimum 22oC dan suhu maksimum 30oC. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah timbangan digital, bak semai, handsprayer, meteran, jangka sorong, label nama, ember, cangkul, cetok, gembor, karung, kantong plastik, kantong kertas, gunting, alat tulis, kamera digital, RHS color chart, dan Panduan Karakterisasi Bunga Matahari (Sunflower Descriptor) (Anonimousa, 2012). Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah 29 aksesi bunga matahari koleksi BALITTAS dan Laboratorium Pemuliaan Tanaman Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Malang, air, kompos Brawijaya, bio-insektisida dengan bahan aktif jamur Beauveria bassiana dan jamur Trichoderma sp. dan pupuk kandang kotoran kambing. 29 aksesi tanaman bunga matahari yang direjuvenasi dan karakterisasi adalah: HA 1, HA 5, HA 6, HA 7, HA 8, HA 9, HA 10, HA 11, HA 12, HA 18, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 25, HA 26, HA 27, HA 28, HA 30, HA 36, HA 39, HA 40, HA 42, HA 43, HA 44, HA 45, HA 46, HA 47, HA 48, dan HA 50. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode single plot (tanpa ulangan). Setiap aksesi ditanam pada plot yang berbeda dengan aksesi yang lain. Jumlah tanaman setiap aksesi adalah 10 tanaman dan total seluruh tanaman dari 29 aksesi adalah 290 tanaman. ii Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi pengamatan karakter kuantitatif dan pengamatan karakter kualitatif. Karakter kuantitatif yang diamati antara lain; umur berkecambah (hari), tinggi tanaman (cm), jumlah helai daun (satuan), panjang dan lebar daun terbesar (cm), diameter batang (cm), umur inisasi bunga (hari setelah semai), umur setelah bunga pertama mekar penuh, diameter bunga pita dan bunga tabung (cm), jumlah kuntum bunga (satuan), bobot total biji pertanaman (gram), jumlah biji pertanaman, persentase biji bernas pertanaman, dan persentase biji hampa pertanaman. Karakter kualitatif yang diamati antara lain; warna antosianin pada hipokotil, bentuk kotiledon, bentuk batang tanaman dewasa, buluh batang tanaman dewasa, bentuk daun, bentuk tepi daun, bentuk ujung daun, bentuk telinga daun, bentuk sayap daun, sudut dari tulang daun lateral terbawah, tinggi ujung helai daun dibandingkan dengan tangkai daun, warna daun tanaman dewasa, bentuk ray floret, pewarnaan antosianin dari kepala putik, bentuk kelopak bunga, bentuk / tipe percabangan, sikap kepala bunga, bentuk permukaan bunga, bentuk permukaan kulit biji, tekstur kulit biji, warna garis pada biji, warna utama biji, dan bentuk biji. Data kuantitatif dianalisis secara deskriptif pada setiap aksesi dengan menghitung nilai koefisien keragaman. Sementara itu, hasil pengamatan data kualitatif dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif yang disajikan dalam bentuk deskripsi dan gambar. Kegiatan rejuvenasi terhadap 29 populasi aksesi plasma nutfah bunga matahari telah menghasilkan benih antara 73 – 469 gram per populasi aksesi. Karakter morfologi plasma nutfah bunga matahari yang dikarakterisasi memperlihatkan keragaman tinggi pada diameter bunga tabung, jumlah biji pertanaman, bobot total biji pertanaman, bobot 100 biji pertanaman, jumlah biji bernas pertanaman, dan jumlah biji hampa pertanaman. Terdapat 3 potensi utama aksesi tanaman bunga matahari berdasarkan keberagaman sifat morfologinya; a) potensi aksesi bunga matahari tipe oilseed terdapat pada aksesi HA 10 dan HA 11, b) potensi aksesi bunga matahari tipe non-oilseed (confectionery) terdapat pada aksesi HA 12, HA 25, HA 28, HA 44, dan HA 46, c) potensi aksesi bunga matahari tipe ornamental (tanaman hias) terdapat pada aksesi HA 5, HA 9, HA 18, HA 36, dan HA 42.

English Abstract

Sunflower is an oil-producing plant for human consumption (edible oil) which is essential and becomes world top fourth after rapeseed oil, soybeans oil, and palm oil (Gandhi, Heesacker, Freeman, Argyris, Bradford, and Napp, 2005). Sunflower crop has potential as crops that produce oils with high unsaturated fatty acids and high protein, and can also be used as a material for foods such as snacks, biscuit, cereal, etc. and because of the beauty of the flowers can also be used as an ornamental plant. The Efforts to increase production and productivity of sunflower was required the seed which have superior quality in terms of the physical, physiological, and genetic. In order to produce new varieties that have high productivity and stability, needed sources of genes that support these traits. The sources of these genes must be identified through characterization to obtain information from the germplasm and rejuvenation activitiy as an effort to preserve the germplasm. The purpose of this research was to rejuvenate and characterize the accessions of sunflower as an attempt to preserve the accessions and get the character information and also to know the potential of each accessions of sunflower’s germplasm. The hypothesis of this research was there are any differences characteristic between sunflower’s accessions. The research was conducted on February until August 2015 in the field which located in Dadaprejo village, Junrejo district, Batu. The tools were used in this research were scales, tubs seedlings, handsprayer, gauges, ruler, calipers, label name, bucket, hoe, trowel, yells, sacks, plastic bags, paper bags, scissors, stationery, camera, RHS color chart, and sunflower descriptor. The materials were used in this research were 29 accessions of sunflower collection from BALITTAS and Plant Breeding Laboratory University of Brawijaya Malang, water, Brawijaya compost, Bio-insecticide, and manure. 29 accessions of sunflower that rejuvenated and characterized were HA 1, HA 5, HA 6, HA 7, HA 8, HA 9, HA 10, HA 11, HA 12, HA 18, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 25, HA 26, HA 27, HA 28, HA 30, HA 36, HA 39, HA 40, HA 42, HA 43, HA 44, HA 45, HA 46, HA 47, HA 48, and HA 50. This research used single plot method (without replication). Each accessions were planted in different plot with the others. The number of plants per accessions were 10 plants and total plants of 29 accessions were 290 plants. There were two kinds of observation parameters, first was quantitative and the second was qualitative. The variables that were observed at quantitative parameters were; 1) age of germination, 2) plant height, 3) number of leaves, 4) length and width of the largest leaf, 5) stem diameter, 6) flower initiation age, iv 7) flowering age, 8) flower ribbon and flower tubes diameter, 9) number of flowers, 10) harvest date, 11) length and width of seed, 12) total weight of seeds per plant, 13) weight of 100 seeds, 14) total seeds per plant, 15) filled seeds per plant, and 16) empty seeds per plant. The variables that were observed at qualitative parameters were; 1) hypocotyl anthocyanin coloration, 2) cotyledon shape, 3) stem shape, 4) stem hairiness, 5) leaf shape, 6) leaf serration, 7) leaf shape of distal part, 8) leaf auricles, 9) leaf wings, 10) leaf angle of lowest lateral veins, 11) leaf height of the tip of the blade compared to insertion of petiole, 12) leaf color, 13) ray floret shape, 14) disk flower anthocyanin coloration of stigma, 15) production of pollen, 16) bract shape, 17) plant type branching, 18) head attitude, 19) head shape of grain side, 20) seed coat surface, 21) seed coat texture, 22) seed stripes, 23) seed main color, 24) seed shape. The quantitative data were analyzed descriptively in every accessions by calculation the value of coefficient of variation. The qualitative data were analyzed descriptively by description and images. Rejuvenation activity of 29 accessions population of sunflower’s germplasm obtained the seed between 73 – 469 gram per accessions population. The morphological characteristics of sunflower’s germplasm that were characterized showed high diversity in observation of flower tubes diameter, total seeds per plant, total weight of seeds per plant, weight of 100 seed, filled seeds per plant, empty seeds per plant. There are three main potentials of sunflower’s accessions based on morphological characteristics; a) potential of sunflower’s accession for oilseed type which contained in HA 10 and HA 11, b) potential of sunflower’s accession for non-oilseed type (confectionery) which contained in HA 12, HA 25, HA 28, HA 44, and HA 46, c) potential of sunflower’s accession for ornamental type which contained in HA 5, HA 9, HA 18, HA 36 and HA 42.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/882/ 051509704
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130927
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