BKG

Oktaviana, Zella (2015) Pengaruh Perbedaan Umur Masak Benih Terhadap Hasil Panen Tiga Varietas Lokal Mentimun (Cucumis Sativus L. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Mentimun (Cucumis sativus L.) merupakan sayuran buah yang banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat karena merupakan sumber gizi, vitamin dan mineral yang dibutuhkan tubuh serta memiliki berbagai manfaat untuk kesehatan tubuh. Oleh karena itu, mentimun tidak hanya dimanfaatkan untuk konsumsi segar melainkan juga digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri kosmetik dan obat-obatan. Kebutuhan dan permintaan komoditas mentimun akan semakin meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan jumlah penduduk dan konsumsi mentimun baik untuk konsumsi segar maupun untuk bahan baku industri kosmetik dan obat. Data dari Kementrian Pertanian (2012) menunjukan bahwa produksi mentimun nasional cenderung berfluktuatif setiap tahunnya. Hal tersebut tidak sejalan dengan tingkat kebutuhan mentimun yang terus meningkat. Produktivitas mentimun selain dipengaruhi oleh faktor genetik, juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor lingkungan dan teknik budidaya yang dilakukan serta kualitas benih yang baik (Sutapradja, 2008). Penggunaan benih yang berkualitas akan memastikan kemajuan yang diperoleh dari aplikasi input lain pada produksi pertanian seperti pemupukan dan pengairan serta dapat mengurangi resiko kegagalan usaha tani. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian terkait mutu fisiologi benih mentimun khususnya mentimun varietas lokal dan pengaruhnya terhadap hasil panen. Karena pada mentimun varietas lokal sebagian besar produksi benihnya hanya dilakukan oleh petani sehingga kualitas/mutu benih yang dihasilkan tersebut belum terjamin dan seragam. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah mengetahui hubungan dan pengaruh perbedaan umur masak benih dan varietas terhadap mutu fisiologis benih dan hasil panen tiga varietas lokal mentimun. Hipotesis yang diajukan dalam penelitian ini ialah terdapat hubungan atau keterkaitan antara umur masak benih dan varietas terhadap mutu fisiologis benih dan hasil panen tiga varietas lokal mentimun. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei sampai Agustus 2014. Penelitian ini terbagi menjadi 2 bagian yaitu pengujian mutu fisiologis benih dan produksi mentimun. Uji mutu fisiologis benih dilaksanakan di laboratorium Pemuliaan Tanaman Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Malang. Sedangkan budidaya dan produksi mentimun dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Sekolah Tinggi Penyuluhan Pertanian (STPP) Malang yang memiliki ketinggian ± 429 m dpl, suhu rata-rata berkisar 22,7 – 25,1º C, curah hujan ± 1500 mm/tahun dan kelembaban nisbi 79 – 86%. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini ialah Rancangan Acak Kelompok Faktorial (RAKF) dengan 2 faktor yaitu varietas (Lokal Malang, Lokal Blitar dan Lokal Jember) dan umur masak benih (umur 18, 28, 38 dan 48 hari setelah polinasi). Bahan tanam yang digunakan ialah benih dari 3 varietas lokal mentimun dengan 4 umur masak benih berbeda yang telah melalui masa simpan selama ± 8 bulan. Bahan pendukung lainnya berupa pupuk kandang, Urea, pupuk NPK mutiara, banlate dan pestisida berbahan aktif metil eugenol. Alat-alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian yaitu ajir, tali rafia, mulsa jerami padi, tugal, cangkul, sprayer, perangkap lalat buah, kawat, meteran, gunting, timbangan analitik, jangka sorong, plastik mika, kertas label, kertas koran, germinator, kantong plastik, alat tulis dan kamera. Percobaan di laboratorium dan di lapang menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok faktorial (RAKF). Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap 10 tanaman sampel pada masing-masing kombinasi perlakuan. Parameter pengamatan uji mutu fisiologis yaitu daya berkecambah (DB), laju perkecambahan, kecepatan tumbuh, indeks vigor dan keserempakan tumbuh. Sedangkan parameter pengamatan tanaman dan hasil panen ialah persentase tanaman tumbuh, umur berbunga jantan dan betina, jumlah bunga jantan dan betina, umur panen awal dan panen akhir, bobot buah per tanaman, jumlah buah per tanaman, jumlah buah per plot, bobot buah per plot, bobot buah, panjang buah dan diameter buah. Analisa data menggunakan analisa ragam (ANOVA) Rancangan acak Kelompok Faktorial (uji F) taraf 5%, apabila terdapat beda nyata maka dilakukan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT) pada taraf nyata 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hubungan/interaksi antara umur masak benih dan varietas hanya terdapat pada parameter keserempakan tumbuh benih. Sedangkan pada parameter mutu fisiologis benih yang lain, yaitu parameter daya berkecambah, laju perkecambahan, kecepatan tumbuh dan indeks vigor serta pada semua parameter hasil panen dan pertumbuhan reproduktif tidak terdapat interaksi antara umur masak benih dan varietas. Parameter-parameter hasil panen dan karakteristik hasil hanya menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda nyata pada perlakuan varietas. Sedangkan pada parameter persentase tanaman tumbuh dan semua parameter pertumbuhan reproduktif tidak terdapat interaksi dan semua perlakuan memberikan pengaruh yang tidak berbeda nyata. Hal tersebut diduga karena selama masa penyimpanan benih yang belum masak fisiologis mengalami pematangan embrio sehingga saat telah melalui masa simpan, benih memiliki kemampuan yang sama dalam hal mutu fisiologis dan hasil panen. Perlakuan varietas menunjukkan pengaruh nyata paling banyak pada hampir semua parameter karena setiap varietas memiliki karakteristik genetik yang berbeda sehingga juga menunjukkan respon yang berbeda terhadap lingkungan.

English Abstract

Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Is A Vegetable That Is Widely Consumed As A Source Of Nutrients, Vitamins And Minerals Needed By The Body And Has Various Health Benefits For The Body. Therefore, Cucumbers Are Not Only Used For Fresh Consumption Such As Salad But Also As An Industrial Raw Material Of Cosmetics And Medicines Such As Face Cleanser And Toner. The Need And Demand Of Cucumber Commodities Will Increase In Line With The Increase Of Population And Consumption Of Cucumber As Both Fresh Vegetable And Industrial Raw Materials Of Cosmetics And Medicines. Data From The Ministry Of Agriculture (2012) Showed That The National Production Of Cucumber Tends To Fluctuate Annually. This Is Not In Line With The Need And Demand Of Cucumbers Which Constantly Increase. Productivity Of Cucumber Is Not Only Influenced By Genetic Factors, But Also Influenced By Environmental Factors, Cultivation Techniques And Seed Quality (Sutapradja, 2008). The Use Of High Quality Seeds Will Ensure Progress Obtained From Other Applications On Agricultural Production Inputs Such As Fertilizer And Irrigation, And Can Reduce The Risk Of Farming Failure. Therefore, It Is Necessary To Do Research Related To The Seed Physiological Quality Of Cucumber Especially Local Varieties Of Cucumber And Their Effects On Yields. Because Most Of The Local Varieties Of Cucumber Seed Production Is Only Done By The Farmers, The Quality Is Not Guaranteed And Has High Diversity. The Purpose Of This Research Was To Determine The Correlation And The Effect Of Seed Maturity Differences And Varieties On Physiological Seed Quality And Yield Of Three Local Varieties Of Cucumber. The Hypothesis Of This Research Was That There Was Correlation Between Seed Maturity And Varieties On Seed Physiological Quality And Yield Of Three Local Varieties Of Cucumber. The Research Was Conducted From May To August 2014. The Research Was Divided Into Two Parts, Namely Physiological Seed Quality Testing And Cucumber Cultivation. Physiological Seed Quality Tests Were Carried Out In The Laboratory Of Plant Breeding, Faculty Of Agriculture University Of Brawijaya. While The Cultivation Of Cucumbers Was Implemented In The Experimental Garden Of STPP Malang Which Has An Altitude ± 429 M Above Sea Level, The Average Temperature Ranges From 22,7 – 25,1º C, ± 1,500 Mm Rainfall/Year And Relative Humidity 79 – 86%. The Design Used In This Research Was A Randomized Block Design Factorial (RBDF) With Two Factors, Namely Varieties (Local Malang, Blitar And Jember) And Seed Maturity (Ages 18, 28, 38 And 48 Days After Pollination). Planting Materials Used Were Seed Of Three Local Varieties Of Cucumber With 4 Seed Maturity Differences. Other Supporting Material Such As Manure, Urea, NPK Fertilizer, Banlate And Pesticide With Active Ingredients Methyl Eugenol. The Tools Used In This Research Were Stakes, Rope, Rice Straw Mulch, Dibble, Hoe, Sprayer, Fruit Fly Traps, Wire, Scissors, Analytical Scales, Calipers, Plastic Mica, Label Paper, Newsprint Paper, Germinator, Plastic Bags, Stationery And Camera. Experiments In The Laboratory And In The Field Used A Factorial Randomized Block Design (RBDF). Data Were Collected From 10 Plant Samples In Each Treatment Combinations. Observation Of Physiological Seed Quality Parameters Were The Percentage Of Germination, Germination Rate, Growth Rate, Vigor Index And Growth Simultaneity. While The Observation Of Plant And Yields Parameters Were Percentage Of Plants, Days Of Male And Female Flowering, Number Of Male And Female Flowers, Days Of First And Last Harvesting, Fruit Weight Per Plant, Number Of Fruit Per Plant, Number Of Fruit Per Plot, Fruit Weight Per Plot, Fruit Weight, Fruit Length And Fruit Diameter. Data Were Analyzed By Using Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) Of Randomized Block Design Factorial (F Test), If There Is A Significant Difference, Will Be Conducted Using Least Significant Difference (LSD) At The 5% Significance Level. The Results Showed That The Correlation Between Seed Maturity And Varieties Only Found In Growth Simultaneity Parameter. There Was No Interaction Between Seed Maturity And Varieties On Other Physiological Seed Quality Parameters, And On All The Parameters Of Reproductive Growth And Yield. All Yield Parameters And Yield Characteristics Showed Significantly Different Only In The Treatment Of Varieties. While The Percentage Of Plants Parameters And All Parameters Of Reproductive Growth There Was No Interaction And Were Not Significantly Different Effect In All Treatments. This Was Presumably Caused By The Immature Seed Maturated Their Embryos During Storage, So After Storage Period, Seeds Had Same Physiological Quality And Yield. Treatment Of Varieties Showed The Most Significant Effect On Almost All Parameters. It Was Caused By Each Variety Had Different Genetic Characteristics That Also Showed Different Responses To The Environment.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/88/051501775
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130924
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