BKG

Sholeh, Aziz (2015) Penampilan Sifat Ketahanan Penyakit Layu Bakteri (Ralstonia Solanacearum) Dan Produktivitas Tinggi Tanaman Cabai Merah (Capsicum Annuum L.) Pada 24 Famili F5. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Cabai merah (Capsicum annum L.) merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman sayuran yang memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi dan banyak digemari oleh masyarakat. Badan Pusat Statistik (2015) mencatat luas panen pada tahun 2010-2012 berturut-turut adalah 122.755 ha, 121.063 ha dan 120.275 ha, sedangkan produksinya mencapai 807.160 ton, 888.852 ton dan 954.363 ton. Dari data tersebut, produktivitas cabai berturut-turut 6,58 ton ha-1, 7,34 ton ha-1 dan 7,93 ton ha-1. Produktivitas tanaman cabai tergolong sangat rendah karena menurut (Agustin, Ilyas, Anas dan Suwarno, 2010) menyatakan bahwa potensi produktivitas tanaman cabai bisa mencapai 20-40 ton ha-1. Rendahnya produktivitas cabai disebabkan oleh serangan hama dan penyakit serta kurang tersedianya benih yang berkualitas. Salah satu penyakit yang menyerang tanaman cabai ialah penyakit layu bakteri. Penyakit ini cukup berbahaya karena pada tingkat serangan berat penyakit ini dapat menyebabkan kematian pada tanaman dan kegagalan panen sehingga menimbulkan kerugian atau penurunan hasil yang relatif besar (Semangun, 1994). Program pemuliaan tanaman ialah salah satu upaya untuk mendapatkan tanaman yang tahan terhadap serangan layu bakteri dan meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman cabai merah. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui ketahanan cabai merah (Capsicum annuum L.) terhadap serangan layu bakteri (Ralstonia solanacearum) dan memiliki produktivitas tinggi pada 24 famili F5. Hipotesis yang diajukan dalam penelitian ini ialah terdapat famili F5 cabai merah (Capsicum annuum L.) yang tahan terhadap serangan layu bakteri (Ralstonia solanacearum) dan memiliki produktivitas tinggi. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada Februari hingga Agustus 2015 di Desa Gesingan, Kecamatan Pujon, Kabupaten Malang dengan ketinggian tempat ±1100 m dpl dan suhu rata-rata 20o-27o C. Alat yang digunakan ialah rak tray, plastik semai, gembor, cangkul, meteran, alat pelubang mulsa, ajir bambu, tali rafia, timbangan analitik, papan penelitian, bambu, kamera, ose, petridish, pinset, bunsen, erlenmeyer, backer glass, botol media, glass L, auotoclave, LAFC, spektrofotometer, tabung reaksi, pipet dan alat tulis. Bahan yang digunakan ialah cocopeat, pupuk kompos, pupuk urea, pupuk SP-36, pupuk KCl, pepton, casein, glukosa, aquades, agar, TZC, dan 24 famili cabai merah generasi F5 hasil persilangan TW2 X PBC473 dan TW2 X Jatilaba. Metode penelitian menggunakaan metode single plot dengan menanam semua generasi F5 hasil seleksi cabai merah F4 tanpa ulangan. Variabel pengamatan yang diamati yaitu tinggi tanaman (cm), bobot per buah (g), diameter buah (cm), panjang buah (cm), jumlah buah per tanaman, jumlah buah baik, jumlah buah jelek, dan intensitas serangan penyakit layu bakteri. Analisa data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berupa nilai koefisien keragaman genetik (KKG), koefisien keragaman fenotip (KKF), dan intensitas serangan penyakit. ii Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada 24 famili cabai merah, terdapat 22 famili terseleksi berdasarkan ketahanan penyakit layu bakteri. Berdasarkan respon ketahanan penyakit layu bakteri dan produktivitas tanaman, didapatkan 5 famili yang terpilih yaitu famili A3 8 14, A4 92 12, B2 46 6, B5 27 20 dan B6 42 13. Pada famili A3 8 14 terdapat 5 individu yang terpilih, famili A4 92 12 terdapat 9 individu yang terpilih, famili B2 46 6 terdapat 6 individu terpilih, famili B5 27 10 terdapat 15 individu terpilih dan famili B6 42 13 terdapat 5 individu terpilih.

English Abstract

Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the vegetable crops that has high economic value and favourited by society. The Central Bureau of Statistics (2013) noted the harvested area in 2010-2012 period is 122 755 ha, 121 063 ha and 120 275 ha, while production reached 807 160 tons, 888 852 tons and 954 363 tons. From the data, successive red pepper productivity 6.58 tons ha-1, 7.34 tons ha-1 and 7.93 ton per ha. Productivity red pepper were very low because according to (Agustin, Ilyas, Suwarno, Anas, 2010) said that potential productivity red pepper can reach 20-40 tons per ha. The low productivity of red pepper is caused by pest and diseases and lack of quality seeds. One of the diseases that attack red pepper was wilt bacteria diseases. This disease is dangerous because at the high attack level this diseases can cause death of plants and crop failure that caused loss or decrease in the result of a relatively large (Semangun, 1994). Plants breeding program is one of an effort to get a plant that is resistant to attack wilt bacteria and increase productivity of red pepper. The purpose of this research is to know the resistant of red pepper (Capsicuum annuum L.) toward bacterial wilt attack (Ralstonia solanacearum) and the potency high productivity in 24 F5 family. Hypothesis of this research is there are some family of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) that resistant to bacterial wilt attack (Ralstonia solanacearum) and have high productivity. This research was conducted from February until August 2015 in Gesingan village, Pujon regency, Batu, with altitude ± 1100 m above sea level and an average temperature of 20o – 27o C. The tools use are tray, polybag for nursery, sprayer, hoe, meter, rope, analytical balance, bamboo stick, digital camera, ose, petridish, tweezers, Erlenmeyer, backer glass, LAFC, spektrofotometer and stationery. The material use are cocopeat, manure fertilizer, NPK fertilizer, pepton, glucose, TZC, and 24 F5 family of red pepper that the result a crossing of TW2 x PBC473 and TW2 x Jatilaba. The research methodology used a method of single plot by planting of all the 24 F5 family that the result selection of red pepper F4 without replication. The Variable observation is plant high (cm), weight of fruit (g), total weight of fruit (g), diameter of fruit (cm), fruit length (cm), number of good fruit, number of rotten fruit, number total of fruit, and attack intensity of illness wilt bacteria. Data analysis of this research is use the form of the coefficient genetic diversity (KKG) and coefficient phenotype diversity (KKF). The research show that from 24 family of red pepper, there are 22 family selected based on the endurance of bacterial wilt disease. Based on endurance response and plant productivity, there are 5 family selected is A3 8 14, A4 92 12, B2 46 6, B5 27 20, and B6 42 13. In the family A3 8 14 there are 5 individual selected, family A4 92 12 there are 9 individual selected, family B2 46 6 there are 6 individual selected, family B5 27 20 there are 10 individual selected, and family B6 42 13 there 5 individual selected.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/851/ 051509673
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130893
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