BKG

Ayu, DyanKusumaning (2015) Pendugaan Variabilitas Dan Heritabilitas 18 Famili F5 Cabai Merah Besar (Capsicum Annuum L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Cabai merah (Capsicum annuum L.) merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman sayur yang penting di Indonesia karena mempunyai nilai ekonomi yang tinggi. Produksi cabai nasional pada tahun 2013 mencapai 1.012 juta ton, namun produksi tersebut masih belum dapat memenuhi kebutuhan cabai dalam negeri. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah rendahnya produktivitas cabai di Indonesia yaitu 8.16 ton/ha pada tahun 2013 (BPS, 2014). Produktivitas tersebut masih rendah apabila dibandingkan dengan potensi produksinya, yaitu 22 ton/ha (Syukur, 2010). Produktivitas dan kualitas cabai masih perlu diperbaiki, mendorong pemulia untuk melakukan perbaikan karakter cabai. Variabilitas genetik yang luas pada cabai, merupakan modal dasar bagi program pemuliaan tanaman. Hibridisasi merupakan salah satu cara untuk memperluas variabilitas genetik. Pada penelitian ini terdapat dua tetua yang digunakan untuk persilangan, yaitu : TW2 dan PBC 473. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menduga nilai variabilitas dan heritabilitas pada 18 famili F5 cabai merah besar (C. annuum L.) serta mendapatkan famili dan seragam terbaik hasil seleksi pada 18 famili F5 cabai merah besar. Hipotesis penelitian ini ialah terdapat satu atau lebih karakter yang memiliki nilai variabilitas dan heritabilitas yang rendah pada 18 famili F5 cabai merah besar (C. annuum L.) serta didapatkan famili terbaik hasil seleksi pada F5 cabai merah besar. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Desa Gesingan, Kecamatan Pujon, Kabupaten Malang dengan ketingggian tempat ± 1.100 m dpl. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari – Agustus 2015. Bahan tanam yang digunakan adalah benih populasi 18 famili F5 cabai merah besar hasil persilangan TW2 X PBC473. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode single plot. Setiap famili F5 ditanam sebanyak 60 tanaman dan 20 tanaman pada tetua. Pengamatan dilakukan pada 12 karakter kuantitatif dan 9 karakter kualitatif. Prosedur pengamatan mengacu pada Descriptor for Capsicum oleh International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI, 1995). Data hasil pengamatan kuantitatif dianalisis berdasarkan nilai varians, standart deviasi varians, dan heritabilitas arti luas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan variabilitas fenotipe pada seluruh famili F5 cabai merah besar adalah sempit, antara lain karakter umur berbunga, umur panen, tinggi tanaman, tinggi dikotomus, diameter batang, bobot per buah, diameter buah, dan panjang buah. Begitu pula variabilitas genetik pada seluruh famili adalah sempit, yaitu pada karakter umur berbunga, umur panen, tinggi tanaman, tinggi dikotomus, diameter batang, bobot per buah, bobot buah total, diameter buah, dan panjang buah. Nilai duga heritabilitas seluruh famili F5 bervariasi antara rendah sampai tinggi yaitu berkisar antara 0 – 84%. Karakter diameter batang, diameter buah, tinggi dikotomus, bobot per buah dan panjang buah memiliki heritabilitas yang rendah. Berdasarkan nilai variabilitas dan heritabilitas yang rendah diperoleh empat karakter penting sebagai kriteria seleksi antara lain, bobot rata-rata per buah, bobot buah total per tanaman, diameter buah dan panjang ii buah. Variabilitas dan heritabilitas yang rendah menunujukkan bahwa famili terpilih relatif seragam. Famili terpilih memiliki nilai rata-rata sama atau lebih tinggi dari nilai rata-rata seluruh famili. Hasil seleksi diperoleh tujuh famili terpilih yaitu famili A1 26 2, A1 26 6, A1 33 18, A3 8 14, A4 92 12, A6 31 18, dan A7 39 13. Selain karakter kuantitatif yang dijadikan sebagai kriteria seleksi, karakter kualitatif juga berperan dalam penetuan seleksi. Pada kedelapan famili terpilih memiliki presentase keseragaman yang tinggi pada setiap karakter kualtitatif.

English Abstract

Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in Indonesia because it has high economic value. National red pepper production in 2013 reached 1.012 million tons, but production still cannot fulfil the needs of people’s consumption. One of the factors is the low productivity of red pepper in Indonesia, that was 8.16 tons/ha in 2013 (BPS, 2014). That is lower than potential production of red pepper which is 22 tons/ ha (Syukur, 2010). Extensive genetic variability on red pepper is the basic of plant breeding programs. Hibriditation is one factor to get wide variability. In this research there are two parental which is used, inculde of TW2 and PBC 473. This study is to estimate the variability and heritability of 18 families on F5 red pepper (C. annuum L.) as well as getting the best family resulted of 18 families F5 selection. The hypotheses of this study are; one or more characters has/have high values of variability and heritability of 18 families on F5 red pepper (C. annuum L.), as well as best family obtained from selection results of 18 families on F5 red pepper. This research has been conducted in Gesingan, Pujon, Malang with altitude of ± 1.100 m above sea level. The study has been begun in the months of February to August 2015. Planting materials used were seed population of 18 families on F5 red pepper resulted in from crossing of TW2 X PBC 473. The method used is the single plot. In every family, there were 60 planted crops at F5 generation and 20 crops at parental generation. The observations were done at 12 quantitative traits and 9 qualitative traits The observation procedure refers to Descriptor for Capsicum, establised by International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI, 1995). Quantitative data results are analyzed based on the values of variance, standart deviation of variance and broad sense heritability. The results showed that the phenotype variability of 18 families on red pepper were narrow, such as flowering days, harvesting days, plant height, dichotomous height, stem diameter, average fruit weight, fruit diameter, and fruit length. And also the genetic variability of 18 families on red pepper were narrow, such as flowering days, harvesting days, plant height, dichotomous height, stem diameter, average fruit weight, fruit weight per plant, fruit diameter, and fruit length. Heritability estimation is varied from 0 – 84%. Stem diameter, dichotomous height, average fruit weight and fruit lengthhave low heritability. Based on narrow value of variability and heritability, there are 4 important trait as the selection criteria, include of average fruit weight, fruit weight per plant, fruit diameter, and fruit length. Narrow variability and heritability indicate that the selected families are relatively uniform. Selected families have an value equal to or higher than the average value of the entire family. Selection results obtained by seven families selected, A1 26 2, A1 26 6, A1 33 18, A3 8 14, A4 92 12, A6 31 18, dan A7 39 13. In addition qualitative traits also play a role in the determination of selection. In all eight families selected have high percentage of uniformity in each qualitative traits.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/833/ 051509655
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130873
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