BKG

Warastuti, IntanDwiPutri (2015) Evaluasi Keseragaman Aksesi Bunga Matahari (Helianthus Annus L. ) Berdasarkan Karakter Generatif. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Bunga matahari (Helianthus annus L.) merupakan salah satu tanaman industri penting yang memiliki kandungan minyak tinggi dengan manfaat sebagai bahan dasar dalam bidang industri pangan dan non pangan seperti minyak nabati rendah kolesterol, tambahan bahan kosmetik, pakan burung, tepung, bahan dasar margarin dan obat-obatan serta tanaman hias. Salah satu usaha pengembangan yang bisa dilakukan adalah dengan upaya perakitan genotipe unggul sebagai dasar untuk pengembangan varietas baru. Perbaikan varietas tanaman menyerbuk silang bisa dilakukan dengan perbaikan populasi atau perakitan hibrida. Pada proses penggaluran atau pembuatan varietas baru diperlukan adanya kemurnian genetik pada populasi. Penelitian sebelumnya yang dilakukan berdasarkan analisis morfologi pada 10 aksesi bunga matahari yaitu HA 1, HA 12, HA 21, HA 22, HA 25, HA 26, HA 28, HA 44, HA 45, HA 50 didapatkan nilai kemiripan antar aksesi sebesar 80% (Purwanti, 2011). Penanaman bunga matahari tersebut dilakukan pada satu tempat yang sama tanpa kontrol persilangan. Bunga matahari merupakan tanaman menyerbuk silang yang memiliki jenis bunga hermaprodit tetapi protandri sehingga menyebabkan inkompatibilitas sendiri (Suprapto dan Supanji, 2009) sehingga potensi persilangan antar aksesi sangat tinggi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi keseragaman dalam aksesi bunga matahari (Helianthus annus L.) dan mengetahui hubungan filogenetik dalam aksesi pada plasma nutfah bunga matahari (Helianthus annus L.) berdasarkan karakter generatif. Hipotesis dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat beberapa aksesi bunga matahari (Helianthus annus L.) yang telah seragam berdasarkan karakter generatif. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Maret – Juli 2015 di dusun Areng-Areng, kelurahan Dadaprejo, kecamatan Junrejo, kota Batu. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini antara lain : buku panduan UPOV dan RHS colour chart, cangkul, ajir dan kamera. Bahan yang digunakan adalah 29 aksesi yaitu HA 1, HA 5, HA 6, HA 7, HA 8, HA 9, HA 10, HA 11, HA 12, HA 18, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 25, HA 26, HA 27, HA 28, HA 30, HA 36, HA 39, HA 40, HA 42, HA 43, HA 44, HA 45, HA 46, HA 47, HA 48dan HA 50 dengan jumlah 15 tanaman setiap aksesi sehingga jumlah populasi tanaman adalah 435 tanaman, pupuk kandang dan pestisida nabati. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode Single Plot tanpa menggunakan rancangan lingkungan. Metode pengamatan dilakukan dengan metode single plant. Benih dari 29 aksesi bunga matahari yang berasal dari satu tanaman yang sama setiap aksesinya. Variabel pengamatan terdiri dari karakter bunga (warna mahkota bunga/ray, bentuk mahkota bunga/ray, warna disk dan bentuk kelopak bunga/bract, bentuk permukaan cawan bunga dan posisi cawan bunga) dan karakter biji (bentuk biji, warna biji, garis pada biji dan warna garis pada biji). ii Data yang diperoleh dari analisis morfologi disajikan dalam bentuk data biner yang digunakan untuk menyusun dendogram. Dendogram dikonstruksi berdasarkan metode kluster Unaweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA) dengan program Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System (NTSYSPC-2.02i). Rancangan dendogram dibuat berdasarkan karakter bunga dan karakter biji. Analisis cluster dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah individu-individu tanaman di dalam masing-masing aksesi tergabung dalam satu cluster atau kelompok. Individu yang tergabung dalam satu kelompok berarti mempunyai kekerabatan yang dekat dan memiliki banyak kemiripan atau mempunyai jarak genetik yang kecil. Dendogram berdasarkan Simple matching Coefficient pada seluruh tanaman dalam aksesi berdasarkan karakter bunga memiliki nilai kemiripan berkisar antara 0.74-1.00 pada koefisien kemiripan 80% (0,80) atau jarak genetik 20% (0.20) dibagi menjadi 7 kelompok dan pada koefisien kemiripan 90% dibagi menjadi 52 kelompok. Sedangkan, berdasarkan karakter biji memiliki nilai kemiripan berkisar antara 0.71 - 1.00 pada koefisien kemiripan 80% (0,80) atau jarak genetik 20% (0.20) dibagi menjadi 6 kelompok dan pada koefisien kemiripan 90% (0,90) atau jarak genetik 10% (0.10) dibagi menjadi 25 kelompok. Terdapat 13 aksesi yang tergabung dalam satu kelompok yaitu aksesi HA 1, HA 7, HA 8, HA 11, HA 25, HA 26, HA 27, HA 28, HA 39, HA 40, HA 44, HA 45 dan HA 47 yang berada pada satu kelompok pada kemiripan 80% dan dua aksesi yaitu aksesi HA 1 dan HA 45 pada kemiripan 90%. Berdasarkan karakter biji terdapat 7 aksesi yaitu HA 1, HA 18, HA 25, HA 28, HA 44, HA 45 dan HA46 yang berada pada satu kelompok pada kemiripan 80% dan lima aksesi yaitu HA 1, HA 25, HA 28, HA 44 dan HA 45 pada kemiripan 90%. Dendogram berdasarkan karakter bunga dan biji menunjukkan bahwa tanaman yang berasal dari satu aksesi tidak selalu bergabung pada satu kelompok atau kluster yang sama yaitu pada 16 aksesi bunga matahari aksesi HA 5, HA 6, HA 9, HA 12, HA 18, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 26, HA 30, HA 36, HA 42, HA 43, HA 46, HA 48 dan HA 50 berdasarkan karakter bunga dan 22 aksesi berdasarkan karakter biji yaitu HA 5, HA 6, HA 7, HA 8, HA 9, HA 10, HA 11, HA 12, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 26, HA 27, HA 30, HA 36, HA 39, HA 40, HA 42, HA 43, HA 47, HA 48 dan HA 50.

English Abstract

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important industrial crop that has a high oil content with the benefits as basic materials in the field of food and non food industry such as vegetable oils are low in cholesterol, additional cosmetic ingredients, bird feed, flour, margarine and basic materials medicines and ornamental plants. An effort that can be done is to development of superior genotypes as a basis for establishment new varieties. Improvement of cross-pollinated plant varieties be done with improvement populations or hybrid varieties. Genetic uniformity of the population is one of process to created new varieties. Previous research conducted by morphological analysis on the 10 accession sunflower namely HA 1, HA 12, HA 21, HA 22, HA 25, HA 26, HA 28, HA 44, HA 45, HA 50 obtained similarity value among accessions by 80% (Purwanti, 2011). Sunflower planting was done at the same place without crossing control. Sunflower is cross-pollinated plant which have hermaphrodite type of flower but protandri causing self incompatibility (Suprapto and Supanji, 2009). The potential of crosses between accessions is very high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uniformity of the accession of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) and determine phylogenetic relationships within accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) germplasm based on generative character. The hypothesis of this study is there some accession sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) which has been uniformly based on generative character. The research was conducted in March-July 2015 in the Areng - Areng, Dadaprejo Villages, Districts Junrejo, Batu. The tools used in this study include: guidebook UPOV and RHS color chart, hoes, marker and camera. Materials used are 29 accessions that HA 1, HA 5, HA 6, HA 7 HA 8, HA 9, HA 10, HA 11, HA 12, HA 18, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 25, HA 26, HA 27, HA 28, HA 30, HA 36, HA 39, HA 40, HA 42, HA 43, HA 44, HA 45, HA 46, HA 47, HA 48 and HA 50 with 15 plants per accession so the number of plant population are 435 plants, manure and pesticide plant. The method used is a Single Plot and method of observation is single plant. The seeds of 29 sunflower accessions derived from the same plant of each accession. Variable observation consists of flowers character (color petals / ray, shape of petals / ray, color disks and shape of petals / bract, the shape of the surface of the cup of interest and position the cup of interest) and seeds character (seed shape, seed color, line on seeds and color lines on seeds). Data obtained from morphological analysis is presented in the form of binary data used to construct dendogram. Dendogram constructed by cluster method Unaweighted pair group method with arithmetic (UPGMA) with program Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System (NTSYSpc-2.02i). Dendogram constructed based on flowers character and seeds character. Cluster analysis was conducted to determine whether the individual plants in each accession joined in a cluster or group. Individuals is member of a group have a close relationship and has much similarity or small genetic distance. iv Dendogram based on Simple Matching Coefficient all of plants in accession based on flowers character has a similarity value ranges between 0.74 - 1.00 at similarity coefficient 80% (0.80) or genetic distance of 20% (0.20) are divided into 7 groups and the similarity coefficient of 90% was divided into 52 groups. Meanwhile, based on the seed characters have similarity values ranged from 0.71 – 1.00 at similarity coefficient 80% (0.80) or genetic distance of 20% (0.20) were divided into 6 groups and the similarity coefficient of 90% (0.90) or a genetic distance of 10% (0.10) are divided into 25 groups. There are 13 accessions belonging to one group, namely the accession HA 1, HA 7 HA 8, HA 11, HA 25, HA 26, HA 27, HA 28, HA 39, HA 40, HA 44, HA 45 and HA 47 are located one group at the similarity of 80% and two accessions that accession HA 1 and HA 45 at the similarity of 90% based on flower character. There were 7 accessions namely HA 1, HA 18, HA 25, HA 28, HA 44, HA 45 and HA46 are located on one group at the similarity of 80% and 5 accession namely HA 1, HA 25, HA 28, HA 44 and HA 45 at the similarity of 90% based on seeds character. Dendogram based on flower and seed characters showed that plants from one accession is not always joined to one group. There are 16 accession of sunflower HA 5, HA 6, HA 9, HA 12, HA 18, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 26, HA 30, HA 36, HA 42, HA 43, HA 46, HA 48 and HA 50 based on the flower characters and 22 accessions based on seed characters that HA 5, HA 6, HA 7 HA 8, HA 9, HA 10, HA 11, HA 12, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 26, HA 27, HA 30, HA 36, HA 39, HA 40, HA 42, HA 43, HA 47, HA 48 and HA 50.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/802/ 051509621
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130839
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