BKG

Prajaka, NanangWahyu (2015) Keragaman Plasma Nutfah Bambu Di Kabupaten Malang Jawa Timur. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Bambu merupakan tanaman monokotil (berkeping satu) dan termasuk keluarga rerumputan. Bambu dimanfaatkan untuk membuat berbagai macam kerajinan seperti tudung saji, tempeh, tempat tissue dan topi. Bambu juga digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan alat musik dan berbagai macam kontruksi bangunan seperti peyangga bangunan, reng dan usuk. Selain itu, bambu juga dapat dijadikan tanaman penahan erosi tanah dan pengikat air tanah. Daerah Kabupaten Malang memiliki kondisi lingkungan dengan nilai kelembaban tertinggi mencapai 90,74% dan suhu rata-rata berkisar antara 26,1 – 28,30C. Memiliki curah hujan rata-rata 1.800 – 3.000 mm/tahun. Kondisi tersebut sesuai kriteria lingkungan hidup tanaman bambu. Maka dari penulis menduga bahwa di Kabupaten Malang banyak terdapat habitat bambu. Sesuai survei pendahuluan dan studi literatur, Kabupaten Malang memiliki jenis bambu yang beragam dengan hanya masih berdasarkan nama lokalnya saja. Data tersebut dapat menjadi landasan untuk melakukan identifikasi keragaman bambu yang ada di Kabupaten Malang. Identifikasi yang dilakukan pada tanaman bambu menurut Widjaja (2001) dapat diamati dari karakter morfologi bambu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi bambu berdasarkan karakter morfologi, serta mengetahui keragaman jenis bambu yang ada di Kabupaten Malang. Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah didapatkan plasma nutfah bambu berdasarkan identifikasi karakter morfologi dan didapatkan keragaman plasma nutfah bambu di Kabupaten Malang. Kegiatan penelitian dilakukan mulai bulan April hingga Juli 2015 di Kabupaten Malang. Lokasi penelitian dilaksanakan pada 4 kecamatan yang ada di Kabupaten MalangJawa Timur. Setiap kecamatan terdiri dari dua desa yang menjadi tempat penelitian. Pertama Desa Tajinan dan Gunungronggo yang terletak di Kecamatan Tajinan. Kedua Desa Wonosari dan Sumber Dem yang terletak di Kecamatan Wonosari. Ketiga Desa Kidangbang dan Codo yang terletak di Kecamatan Wajak. Dan keempat Desa Peniwen dan Jambuer yang terletak di Kecamatan Kromengan. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini meliputi alat tulis, penggaris, form pengamatan karakter morfologi bambu, kamera sebagai alat dokumentasi, meteran, pisau, gunting, parang, gergaji, cetok, pedoman color chart RHS, termometer, klinometer, dan altimeter. Bahan yang digunakan adalah kertas label, plastik sampel, tali rafia dan plasma nutfah bambu pada lokasi penelitian. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan metode survei yang meliputi observasi, pengamatan identifikasi morfologi tanaman bambu dan wawancara pada masyarakat setempat. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan cara purposive sampling. Pengambilan sampel jenis ini dilakukan berdasarkan pada kesengajaan peneliti untuk mengamati obyek pengamatan yang dikehendaki. Pengamatan karakter morfologi dilakukan pada aksesi bambu yang menjadi sampel pengamatan. Karakter kualitatif yang buluh, warna buluh muda, warna ii buluh tua, tipe percabangan, warna bulu pelepah buluh, bentuk kuping pelepah buluh, bentuk daun pelepah buluh, warna bulu pada daun pelepah buluh, bentuk daun, tulang daun, dan warna daun. Sedangkan karakter kuantitatif meliputi panjang ruas buluh (cm), diameter buluh (cm), jarak cabang dengan permukaan tanah (m), panjang kuping pelepah buluh (mm), panjang bulu kejur (mm), panjang bulu kejur pada kuping pelepah buluh (mm), panjang daun (cm), dan lebar daun (cm). Penelitian dengan metode survei menurut Nazir (2003), menggunakan penyajian data deskriptif untuk analisis data yang ada. Data yang diperoleh dari pengamatan lapang dikelompokkan menjadi data kualitatif dan data kuantitatif. Data tersebut digunakan untuk bahan identifikasi morfologi tanaman bambu sehingga diketahui jenis-jenis bambu yang ada di Kabupaten Malang. Acuan untuk mengidentifikasi bambu menggunakan referensi dari Widjaja (2001). Hasil dari pengamatan bambu berdasarkan karakter morfologi didapatkan 13 jenis bambu dengan masih menggunakan nama lokal daerah. Bambu-bambu yang ditemukan antara lain bambu ampel, bambu apus, bambu jabal, bambu jakarta, bambu jawa, bambu kuning, bambu ori, bambu petung, bambu rampal, bambu rampal kuning, bambu tutul, bambu wuluh, dan bambu wulung. Setelah diidentifikasi pada tingkat genus, ke- 13 bambu tersebut masuk dalam 5 genus bambu yaitu Bambusa, Schizostachyum, Gigantochloa, Dendrocalamus dan Phyllostachys. Bambu yang termasuk dalam genus Bambusa ialah bambu ampel, bambu kuning, bambu ori dan bambu tutul. Bambu yang termasuk genus Schizostachyum ialah bambu rampal kuning, bambu wuluh, bambu rampal dan bambu jabal. Bambu yang termasuk dalam genus Gigantochloa ialah bambu apus, bambu wulung, dan bambu jawa. Bambu yang termasuk genus Dendrocalamus hanya satu yaitu bambu petung, dan bambu yang masuk dalam genus Phyllostachys juga satu yaitu bambu jakarta. Pada identifikasi tingkat spesies, masing-masing bambu yang ditemukan dengan masih menggunakan nama lokal dapat ditentukan masing-masing nama ilmiahnya. Bambu ampel (Bambusa vulgaris), bambu apus (Gigantochloa apus), bambu jabal (Schizostachyum aequiramosum), bambu jakarta (Phyllostachys aurea), bambu jawa (Gigantochloa atter), bambu kuning (Bambusa vulgaris var. Striata.), bambu ori (Bambusa blumeana), bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper), bambu rampal kuning (Schizostachyum brachycladum), bambu rampal (Schizostachyum zollingeri), bambu tutul (Bambusa maculata), bambu wuluh (Schizostachyum silicatum), dan bambu wulung (Gigantochloa atroviolacea).

English Abstract

Bamboo plant is monocotyledonous plant and belongs to grass family. Bamboos are used to make many kinds of crafts like serving cover, tempeh (used as a medium for transferring meals), medium for putting tissues and hat. They are also used as main material for making musical tools and many kinds of building construction like building buffer, and reng and usuk (two roof buffers; horizontal and vertical, respectively). Besides, bamboo plant can also be used as a plant for preventing the soil erosion and keeping the soil water from flowing into the soil. Malang regency area has the environmental condition, such as its highest humidity value of 90.74% and the average temperature ranges from 26.1 to 28.3 degrees Celsius, the average precipitation is 1,800 to 3,000 mm/year. The condition meets the environmental criteria for the bamboo plant life. Based on that fact, the researcher believed that there were many habitats of bamboo in Malang regency. According to the introductory survey and literature study, Malang regency has diverse kinds of bamboo, but in local names only. The data can be the reference to identify the bamboo diversity in Malang regency. The identification which was done on bamboo plant, according to Widjaja (2001), can be observed from its morphological characteristics. This research was aimed for identifying the bamboo plants based on morphological characteristics, and also for recognizing the diversity of bamboo plants in Malang regency. The research hypothesis was that there were bamboo plant germ plasms based on the morphological characteristics and there was also the diversity of bamboo plant germ plasms in Malang regency. The research was conducted from April to July 2015 in Malang regency. And it was conducted in 4 sub-districts in Malang regency, East Java. Every subdistrict provided 2 villages in which each research was conducted. First subdistrict called Tajinan has the villages of Tajinan and Gunungronggo. Second one called Wonosari has the villages of Wonosari and Sumberdem. Third one called Wajak has the villages of Kidangbang and Codo. And the last one called Kromengan has the villages of Peniwen and Jambuer. The tools used were stationery, ruler, the bamboo morphological characteristics observation form, camera for the documentation of pictures, meter, knife, scissors, chopping knife, saw, trowel, colour charts of RHS (Royal Horticultural Society), thermometer, clinometer, and altimeter. While the materials were labels, sample plastics, raffia, and bamboo plant germ plasms. The research was conducted by using the surveying method, including observation, the bamboo morphological identification observation and public or social interview. The sampling was done with purposive sampling. This kind of sampling was done based on the researcher’s intention to observe the wanted objects. The observation of morphological characteristics was done on bamboo accession which was the observational sample. The observed qualitative characteristics included the bud sheath color, bud sheath hair color, culm type, iv young culm color, old culm color, branching type, culm sheath hair color, culm sheath ear shape, culm sheath leaf shape, culm sheath leaf hair color, leaf shape, midrib, leaf color. While the quantitative characteristics included culm node length (cm), culm diameter (cm), branch range to soil surface (m), culm sheath ear length (mm), length of cilia (mm), cilia length on culm sheath ear (mm), leaf length (cm), and leaf width (cm). Researches with surveying method, according to Nazri (2003), use the descriptive data presentation for the available data analysis. Data obtained from the field observation were divided into qualitative and quantitative data. The data were used for the bamboo morphological identification, so the types of bamboo plant in Malang regency were recognized. The bamboo identification uses the bamboo identification study reference by Widjaja (2001). The bamboo plant observation based on morphological characteristics resulted in 13 bamboo plant types with the local names. The bamboo plants which were found included Ampel, Apus, Jabal, Jakarta, Jawa, Kuning, Ori, Petung, Rampal, Rampal Kuning, Tutul, Wuluh, and Wulung. After being identified at the genus level, 13 bamboo plants belonged to 5 genera, which were Bambusa, Schizostachyum, Gigantochloa, Dendrocalamus, and Phyllostachys. The ones which belonged to Bambusa were Ampel, Kuning, Ori and Tutul. The ones which belonged to Schizostachyum were Rampal kuning, Wuluh, Rampal, and Jabal. The ones which belonged to Gigantochloa were Apus, Wulung, and Jawa. The one which belonged to Dendrocalamus was Petung only. The one which belonged to Phyllostachys was Jakarta only. At the species-level identification, each bamboo plant which was found with its local name, the scientific name could be defined. Ampel (Bambusa vulgaris), Apus (Gigantochloa apus), Jabal (Schizostachyum aequiramosum), Jakarta (Phyllostachys aurea), Jawa (Gigantochloa atter), Kuning (Bambusa vulgaris var. Striata.), Ori (Bambusa blumeana), Petung (Dendrocalamus asper), Rampang kuning (Schizostachyum brachycladum), Rampal (Schizostachyum zollingeri), Tutul (Bambusa maculata), Wuluh (Schizostachyum silicatum), and Wulung (Gigantochloa atroviolacea).

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/798/ 051509617
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130833
Full text not available from this repository.

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item