BKG

Octriviana, Riskyhanti (2015) Observasi Plasma Nutfah Bambu Di Kabupaten Malang. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Bambu merupakan salah satu tanaman yang mudah ditemukan ditemukan di Indonesia untuk berbagai kepentingan khususnya di Pulau Jawa, dan pemanfaatannya sangat berpengaruh dalam kehidupan masyarakat Indonesia. Ditemukan 80 genera, 1000 spesies bambu di dunia, dan kurang lebih 200 spesies dari 20 genera ditemukan di Asia, dan diperkirakan sekitar 60 spesies bambu tersebar di seluruh Indonesia (Wiyono, 2012). Bambu dapat tumbuh di dataran rendah hingga hutan hujan tropis dataran sedang dan tinggi dengan kisaran suhu 9-36 derajat celsius dan kisaran ketinggian 0-3000 mdpl. Bambu biasa tumbuh di hutan alami, hutan perkebunan, dan kawasan pedesaan yang tersebar di seluruh Indonesia terutama di Pulau Jawa, Bali, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, Papua, dan Nusa Tenggara (Yuniati, 2011). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi keberadaan plasma nutfah bambu di Kabupaten Malang. Penelitian dilakukan dari bulan Maret hingga Juni 2015, di Kabupaten Malang yang meliputi 4 (empat) kecamatan terdiri dari 3 (tiga) di Kecamatan Tajinan (Desa Tajinan, Gunungronggo, dan Purwosekar), Kecamatan Wonosari (Desa Wonosari dan Sumberdem), Kecamatan Wajak (Desa Kidangbang dan Codo), dan Kecamatan Kromengan (Desa Peniwen dan Jambuer). Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah alat tulis, kamera, roll meter, pisau, kompas, penggaris, GPS (Global Positioning System), dan tali rafia, sedangkan bahan yang digunakan yaitu bambu yang berada di lokasi penelitian dan hasil wawancara. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode observasi lapang dan wawancara. Analisa data disajikan dalam data deskriptif. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara sengaja atau purposive sampling yaitu memilih informan yang memiliki dan mengetahui jenis–jenis tanaman bambu. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan beberapa tahap antara lain survey pendahuluan yaitu menentukan lokasi sentra tanaman bambu di Kabupaten Malang, melakukan pencarian responden di daerah yang menjadi lokasi penelitian, melakukan wawancara, pengamatan analisis vegetasi dengan cara membuat plot ukuran 10 m x 10 m (plot pengamatan ditentukan secara sengaja berdasarkan keberadaan jenis tanaman bambu), pengambilan foto dokumentasi penelitian. Analisis data menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan analisis vegetasi berdasarkan gambaran seluruh obyek yang diamati meliputi kerapatan (K), kerapatan relatif (KR), frekuensi relatif (FR), dan Indeks Nilai penting (INP). Berdasarkan hasil observasi didapatkan 75 sampel plot pengamatan Kecamatan Tajinan, Wajak, Wonosari, dan Kromengan. Ditemukan 13 jenis bambu antara lain bambu apus (Gigantochloa apus), jawa (Gigantochloa atter), petung (Dendrocalamus asper), rampal (Schizostachyum zollingeri), ampel (Bambusa vulgaris), ori (Bambusa blumeana), jabal (Schizostachyum brachycladum), wulung (Gigantochloa atroviolacea), wuluh (Schizostachyum silicatum), kuning (Bambusa vulgaris var. Striata), rampal kuning ii (Schizostachyum brachycladum cv. Kuning), jakarta (Thyrsostachys siamensis), dan tutul (Bambusa maculata). . Di Kecamatan Tajinan Desa Tajinan bambu ditemukan pada 2 dusun yaitu dusun Karangnongko dan Dusun Klagen dengan 9 plot pengamatan terdapat 7 jenis bambu dengan nama lokal : bambu apus, jawa, petung, ampel, rampal, ori, dan wulung dengan INP tertinggi yaitu bambu rampal 0,66%. Desa Gunungronggo terdapat 6 jenis bambu : bambu apus, jawa, petung, ampel, rampal, dan ori dalam 14 plot pengamatan dengan INP tertinggi yaitu bambu jawa 0,47%. Selanjutnya Desa Purwosekar jumlah plot pengamatan 2 terdapat 6 jenis bambu : bambu apus, jawa, petung, jabal, tutul, dan wulung. INP tertinggi adalah bambu petung sebesar 0,59%. Kecamatan Wajak di Desa Kidangbang terdapat 22 plot pada empat dusun, 12 jenis bambu yang ditemukan antaralain bambu apus, jawa, petung, ampel , rampal, ori, tutul, kuning, rampal kuning, jakarta, wuluh, dan wulung dengan INP tertinggi yaitu bambu petung 0,44%. Selanjutnya Desa Codo Kecamatan Wajak jumlah total plot pengamatan yaitu 11 plot dengan 9 jenis bambu antara lain bambu apus, jawa, petung, ampel, rampal, ori, jabal, wulung, dan wuluh, INP tertinggi pada bambu apus sebesar 0,48%. Kecamatan Kromengan terdaapat 2 desa yaitu Desa Peniwen dan Desa jambuwer jumlah total 7 plot pengamatan. Jenis bambu yang ditemukan di Desa Peniwen 5 jenis antara lain bambu apus, jawa, petung, wuluh, dan ampel nilai INP tertinggi yaitu 0,79% pada bambu jawa. Sedangkan Desa Jambuwer ditemukan 6 jenis bambu antara lain bambu apus, jawa, petung, ampel, ori, dan wulung dengan INP tertinggi pada bambu petung sebesar 0,65%. Kecamatan Wonosari jumlah total plot pengamatan yaitu 10 plot yang meliputi Desa Sumberdem dan Desa wonosari. Terdapat tiga jenis bambu di kecamatan ini antara lain bambu apus, jawa, dan petung denga INP tertinggi babu jawa 16,07 di Desa Sumberdem dan INP tertinggi di Desa Wonosari yaitu bambu jawa 0,71%. Bambu merupakan tanaman yang memiliki banyak manfaat mulai dari akar sampai daun. Masyarakat di Kabupaten Malang umumnya menggunakan buluh bambu dan rebung untuk dimanfaatkan menjadi berbagai macam kebutuhan. Buluh bambu adalah bagian utama dari bambu sekaligus menjadi penciri utama untuk membedakan jenis bambu satu dengan yang lain. Bambu dapat digunakan dalam beberapa aspek keperluan antara lain keperluan rumah, industri, konstruksi, kerajinan, dan konservasi. Keberadaan jenis bambu berhubungan dengan pola masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan bambu. Indeks Nilai penting bambu apus, jawa, dan petung yang tinggi daripada jenis lain ditemukan pada semua daerah berbanding lurus dengan potensi pemanfaatan bambu.

English Abstract

Bamboo is one of plants which can be found in Indonesia easily, especially in Java Island, and the benefit for many purposes is really give an influence for the life of Indonesian people. It had been found 80 generas, 1000 species of bamboo in the world, and about 200 species from 20 genera are found in Asia, and it is predicted that about 60 species is spread in tho whole of Indonesia (Wiyono, 2012). The bamboo can spread in the lowland until tropical rain forest in the average and high land with the temperature of 9 – 36 degree celcius and height of 0 – 3000 mdpl. Usually, the bamboo grows in the natural forest, plantation forest, and rural area which is spread over to the entire of Indonesia, especially in the Island of Java, Bali, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, Papua, and Nusa Tenggara (Yuniati, 2011). This research is aimed to get information about bamboo germplasm in Malang Regency. This research was conducted from March until June 2015 in Malang Regency, that include 4 districts there are 3 villages in Tajinan District (Tajinan, Gunungronggo,and Purwosekar village), Wonosari District (Wonosari and Sumberdem Village), Wajak District (Kidangbang and Codo Village) and Kromengan District (Peniwen and Jambuwer Village). Tools that were used in this research were stationary, camera, knife, measuring stuffs (roll meter, ruler and rope) and GPS (Global Positioning System). Materials that were used in this research were bamboo on research location and data interview. This research used field observation method and interview. Data analysis was showed in descriptive data. Sample was taken according to purposive or purposive sampling, that choose informant who has and knows about bamboo’s species. The research was conducted by some steps, there were preliminary survey (decided the central location of bamboo in Malang Regency), searched respondent in area of research location, then interview, vegetation analysis observation by made plot with size 10 m x 10 m (observation plot was decided on purpose based on the existence of bamboo) and documentation photo of research. Data analysis used descriptive method with vegetation analysis based on the potret of all objects that was observed, such as density (K), Relative Density (KR), Relative Frequency (FR) and Important Index Value (INP). Based on research’s results, there are 75 samples of observation plot from Tajinan, Wajak, Wonosari and Kromengan District. Have been found 13 type of bamboos there are apus (Gigantochloa apus), jawa (Gigantochloa atter), petung (Dendrocalamus asper), rampal (Schizostachyum zollingeri), ampel (Bambusa vulgaris), ori (Bambusa blumeana), jabal (Schizostachyum brachycladum), wulung (Gigantochloa atroviolacea), wuluh (Schizostachyum silicatum), yellow (Bambusa vulgaris var. Striata), yellow Schizostachyum brachycladum cv. Kuning), jakarta (Thyrsostachys siamensis), dan tutul (Bambusa maculata). There are 2 country sides on Tajinan District, such as Karangnongko Country side and Klagen Country side. On these countryside, with 9 observation plots, there are 7 local names of bamboos: apus, jawa, petung, ampel, rampal, ori and wulung Bamboo. Rampal Bamboo has highest INP (0,66%). On Gunungronggo Village, iv there are 6 species of bamboos: apus, jawa, petung, ampel, rampal and ori Bamboo in 14 observation plots with highest INP, that is jawa bamboo (0,47%). Observation plots in Purwosekar Village are 2 plots with 6 bamboos: apus, jawa, petung, jabal, tutul and wulung bamboo. Highest INP is Petung Bamboo that valued 0,59%. Meanwhile, there are 22 observation plots on 4 country sides in Wajak District, Kidangbang Village and there are 12 species bamboos that were found, there were apus, jawa, petung, ampel, rampal, ori, tutul, kuning, rampal kuning, jakarta, wuluh and wulung bamboo with highest INP is petung (0,44%). In Codo Village, Wajak District, there are 11 observation plots with 9 species bamboos: apus, jawa, petung, ampel, rampal, ori, jabal, wulung and wuluh bamboo. Highest INP on Jawa Bamboo (0,48%). Peniwen Village and Jambuwer Village in Kromengan District has 7 observation plots. Species bamboo that were found in Peniwen Village are apus, jawa, petung, wuluh and ampel Bamboo with highest INP on jawa bamboo (0,79%). In Jambuwer Village, there are 6 bamboos that were found: apus, jawa, petung, ampel, ori and wulung Bamboo with highest INP on petung bamboo (0,65%). Wonosari Village has 10 observation plots that include Sumberdem and Wonosari Village. There are 3 species bamboos in this districts, such as apus, jawa and petung bamboos with highest INP on jawa bamboos (16,07%) in Sumberdem and highest INP in Wonosari Village is jawa bamboos (0,71%). Bamboo is a plant that has many benefits ranging from roots to leaves. Generally, people in Malang Regency generally use culm bamboo and bamboo shoots in many needs. The Culm bamboo is a major piece of bamboo and also as a primary identifier to distinguish types of bamboo. Bamboo can be used in some aspects of purposes such as : domestic purposes, industrial, construction, crafts, and conservation. The existence of many kinds of bamboo are related with the public pattern in using bamboo. The important value index bamboo apus, jawa, and petung bamboos are higher than other types in all areas as well as the bamboo potential use.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/788/ 051509607
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130822
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