BKG

Kinasih, NimasAyu (2015) Variasi Karakter Morfologi Tanaman Uwi (Dioscorea Alata L.) Di Kabupaten Tuban Dan Malang. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Tanaman Uwi (Dioscorea alata L.) merupakan salah satu umbi-umbian minor sumber karbohidrat yang cukup berpotensi sebagai alternatif pangan non-beras di masa datang. Saat ini uwi hampir dilupakan dan jarang ditemukan di Indonesia. Keragaman tanaman akan berkurang jika tanaman tersebut dibiarkan hilang, sedangkan uwi memiliki karakter morfologi yang sangat bervariasi. Berdasarkan hasil studi literatur dan survei pendahuluan menunjukkan masih ada tanaman uwi di Kabupaten Tuban dan Malang yang belum terkarakterisasi secara pasti. Oleh sebab itu, diperlukan upaya pengumpulan plasma nutfah melalui kegiatan eksplorasi dan karakterisasi morfologi uwi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi karakter morfologi dan hubungan kekerabatan tanaman uwi di Kabupaten Tuban dan Malang. Hipotesis dalam penelitian ini adalah terdapat variasi karakter morfologi dan hubungan kekerabatan tanaman uwi di Kabupaten Tuban dan Malang. Kegiatan eksplorasi dan karakterisasi morfologi tanaman uwi dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari sampai Juni 2015 di Kabupaten Tuban dan Malang. Analisa sifat fisika tanah dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni 2015 di Laboratorium Fisika Tanah, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya. Uji kadar pati dilaksanakan pada bulan September 2015 di Laboratorium Pengujian Mutu dan Keamanan Pangan, Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini antara lain GPS, termo-higrometer, pH meter tanah, kamera digital, cangkul, linggis, tali rafia, kantong plastik, karung sak, mistar, jangka sorong, meteran rol, timbangan digital, cutter, label, Descriptor of Yam (Dioscorea spp.) (IPGRI 1997), RHS Colour Chart, form ekologi, alat analisa tekstur tanah, Munsell Soil Color Chart, LRAP, alat uji kadar pati, dan alat tulis. Bahan digunakan antara lain sampel tanaman uwi, sampel tanah, sampel umbi Singkong Ketan, air, larutan kimia analisa tekstur tanah, larutan kimia uji kadar pati, dan tissue. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode survei serta wawancara kepada petani. Tahap yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini antara lain studi literatur dan survei pendahuluan, pengambilan data primer (persiapan alat, bahan, dan perijinan lokasi serta karakterisasi morfologi tanaman), dan pengambilan data sekunder (data ekologi, potensi tanaman, serta analisa sifat fisik tanah). Pengamatan tanaman dilakukan pada seluruh aksesi uwi yang ditemukan dengan 41 karakter morfologi. Data deskriptif lebih lanjut dianalisa dengan menggunakan ii fungsi similarity interval pada program NTSyspc-2.20i hingga menghasilkan dendogram untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan antar varian. Berdasarkan hasil eksplorasi, uwi dapat ditemukan di Kecamatan Poncokusumo, Tajinan, Tumpang, Lawang, Wonosari, dan Jabung Kabupaten Malang. Di Kecamatan Bancar, Kerek, dan Semanding Kabupaten Tuban juga masih ditemukan tanaman uwi, bahkan hingga dibudidayakan secara luas. Berdasarkan hasil eksplorasi didapatkan 71 aksesi yang terdiri dari 12 varian uwi, antara lain Uwi Legi, Uwi Putih, Uwi Sego, Uwi Jaran, Uwi Ketan, Uwi Ireng, Uwi Bangkulit, Uwi Ulo, Uwi Tambi, Uwi Selat, Uwi Klelet, dan Uwi Randu. Hasil karakterisasi dapat diketahui bahwa setiap varian uwi memiliki karakter morfologi yang membedakan dengan varian yang lain. Karakter khusus yang menjadi penciri dapat terlihat dari warna sayap dan rigid, warna tangkai daun, bentuk daun, bentuk bulbil, warna daging bulbil, bentuk umbi, warna kulit dalam umbi, dan warna daging umbi. Berdasarkan dendogram dan nilai koefisien kekerabatan menjelaskan bahwa dari ke-12 varian uwi yang telah dikarakterisasi terbagi ke dalam dua kelompok besar, yaitu kelompok Uwi Selat dan kelompok uwi lain (Uwi Legi, Uwi Putih, Uwi Sego, Uwi Jaran, Uwi Ketan, Uwi Ireng, Uwi Bangkulit, Uwi Ulo, Uwi Tambi, Uwi Klelet, dan Uwi Randu). Dendogram menunjukkan bahwa setiap varian uwi yang ditemukan memiliki jarak kekerabatan dengan koefisien 58-96%. Aksesi LG22 dan LG26 memiliki jarak kekerabatan paling dekat dengan koefisien 96%.

English Abstract

Yam (Dioscorea alata L.) is one of the minor tubers which is good as carbohydrates source and potential alternative to non-rice food in the future. Today the plants were almost forgotten and rare in Indonesia. Plant diversity will decrease if that plant is left to be gone, whereas yam has varied morphological characters. Based on literature study and preliminary survey, it is showed that there are yam in Tuban and Malang which not characterization definitely yet. Therefore, it is needed to collect germplasm through exploration activities and morphological characterization of yam. This research aimed to know the variation in morphological characters and genetic relationship of yam in Tuban and Malang. The hypothesis of this research was that there is variation in morphological characters and genetic relationship of yam in Tuban and Malang. Exploration activities and morphological characterization of yam held from February to June 2015 in Tuban and Malang. Analysis of soil physical held at June 2015 in Soil Physical Laboratory, Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University. Analysis of starch level held at September 2015 in Testing Laboratory of Food Quality and Food Safety, Agriculture Technology Faculty, Brawijaya University. The tools used in this research include GPS, thermo-hygrometer, soil tester, digital camera, hoe, crowbar, raffia rope, plastic bags, sacks, ruler, caliper, meter roll, digital scales, cutter, labels, Descriptor of Yam (Dioscorea spp.) (IPGRI 1997), RHS Colour Chart, ecology sheets, tools of soil texture analysis, Munsell Soil Color Chart, LRAP, tools of starch level analysis, and stationery. The materials used include yam sample, soil samples, Singkong Ketan sampel, water, chemical solution of soil texture analysis, chemical solution of starch level analysis, and tissue. The research method used is survey and interviews with farmers. Stage conducted in this research is the literature study and preliminary survey, primary data collection (preparation tools and materials, research location permission, and characterizing morphology), and secondary data collection (ecology data, potential plants, and soil physical analysis). Observation conducted on the entire accession yam found with 41 morphological characters. Descriptive data analyzed using the similarity interval function by NTSyspc-2.20i program to generate dendrogram to determine the genetic relationship between variant. Based on exploration, yam can be found in Malang (Poncokusumo, Tajinan, Tumpang, Lawang, Wonosari, and Jabung). In Tuban (Bancar, Kerek, and Semanding) yam is also found, even yam had been cultivate on large a scale iv here. Based on exploration, there found 71 accessions which comprises 12 variants of yam, such as Uwi Legi, Uwi Putih, Uwi Sego, Uwi Jaran, Uwi Ketan, Uwi Ireng, Uwi Bangkulit, Uwi Ulo, Uwi Tambi, Uwi Selat, Uwi Klelet, and Uwi Randu. The Result of characterization showed that every variant has morphology character which different from other variant. Special character it can be feature such as wing and rigid color, petiole color, leaf shape, aerial tuber shape, aerial tuber flesh color, tuber shape, tuber skin color at beneath the bark, and tuber flesh color. Based on dendogram and coefficient similarity value explained that from 12 yam variant had characterization divided to two big groups, that is Uwi Selat group and other yam group (Uwi Legi, Uwi Putih, Uwi Sego, Uwi Jaran, Uwi Ketan, Uwi Ireng, Uwi Bangkulit, Uwi Ulo, Uwi Tambi, Uwi Klelet, and Uwi Randu). The dendogram showed that every variants of yam were found has close similarity distance with coefficient similarity value 58-96%. LG22 and LG26 accession has closest similarity distance with coefficient similarity value 96%.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/787/ 051509606
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130821
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