BKG

Trisnawan, AdeSyahrizal (2015) Pengaruh Pemberian Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Pada Pematahan Dormansi Mata Tunas Tanaman Jeruk (Citrus Sp.) Hasil Okulasi. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Perkembangan jeruk di Indonesia cukup pesat, total produksi buah jeruk mencapai 1.926.543 ton pada tahun 2014 (Anonymous, 2014). Produksi jeruk nasional belum mampu memenuhi kebutuhan jeruk. Permasalahan utama disebabkan oleh teknik budidaya yang salah dan perbenihan jeruk yang kurang maksimal. Perbenihan jeruk selama ini dilakukan dengan teknik okulasi karena mempunyai keunggulan daripada teknik yang lain. Kelemahan teknik okulasi yaitu terdapat mata tunas dorman (tidur) yang dapat mencapai 20%, sehingga dalam perbenihan secara komersial sangat merugikan karena untuk menumbuhkan tunas baru memerlukan waktu yang lama dan memerlukan tambahan biaya. Mekanisme dormansi dapat dihilangkan oleh bahan perangsang pertumbuhan. Zat Pengatur Tumbuh (ZPT) merupakan bahan yang mampu merangsang pertumbuhan tanaman. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian ZPT yaitu Rootone-f, GA3, Ekstrak Bawang Merah, Air Kelapa Muda pada pematahan dormansi mata tunas tanaman jeruk dan mengetahui jenis dan frekuensi ZPT yang paling efektif. Hipotesis yang dapat diajukan adalah 1) Pemberian zat pengatur tumbuh mampu mematahkan dormansi hasil okulasi tanaman jeruk, 2) Jenis zat pengatur tumbuh GA 3 dengan 3 kali semprot memberikan hasil yang paling tinggi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Punten, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika (Balitjestro) Batu. Penelitian dimulai dari bulan Agustus sampai November 2014. Penelitian berdasarkan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan faktor pemberian ZPT dan frekuensi penyemprotan, diulang 3 kali dengan unit perlakuan 4 tanaman. Perlakuan tersebut adalah: 1) RFA (Rootone-F, 1 kali semprot), 2) RFB (Rootone-F, 2 kali semprot), 3) RFC (Rootone-F, 3 kali semprot), 4) GAA (GA3, 1 kali semprot), 5) GAB (GA3, 2 kali semprot), 6) GAC (GA3, 3 kali semprot), 7) BMA (Ekstrak Bawang Merah, 1 kali semprot), 8) BMB (Ekstrak Bawang Merah, 2 kali semprot), 9) BMC (Ekstrak Bawang Merah, 3 kali semprot), 10) KMA (Air Kelapa Muda, 1 kali semprot), 11) KMB (Air Kelapa Muda, 2 kali semprot), 12) KMC (Air Kelapa Muda, 3 kali semprot) dan 13) Kontrol (Tidak diperlakukan). Parameter pengamatan meliputi: kecepatan pecahnya mata tunas (hari), persentase mata tunas pecah (%), jumlah daun (helai), tinggi tunas (cm), diameter batang bawah dan diameter tunas (cm). Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam RAL. Apabila dari hasil analisa terdapat pengaruh perbedaan yang nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian zat pengatur tumbuh memberikan pengaruh nyata pada persentase pecah tunas umur 28 HSP. ZPT memberikan hasil lebih baik dibanding kontrol (K) dan jenis ZPT GA3 mampu memberikan hasil rerata persentase paling tinggi. Persentase tunas pecah paling tinggi dihasilkan oleh zat pengatur tumbuh GA3 dengan 3 kali semprot (GAC) pada 28 hari setelah perlakuan dan air kelapa muda tiga kali semprot (KMC) pada 84 hari setelah pengamatan. Perlakuan ZPT tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata pada kecepatan pecah tunas. Secara umum pemberian zat pengatur tumbuh tidak memberikan perbedaan yang nyata pada parameter pertumbuhan tanaman seperti tinggi tunas, jumlah daun, diameter batang dan tunas.

English Abstract

Citrus development in Indonesia is quite rapid, citrus production has reached 1.926.543 tons in 2014 (Anonymous, 2014). Local Citrus production still not be able to fulfill the demand of ctrus. The main problem is caused by wrong cultivation techniques and not maximal in citrus nurseries. Citrus breeding have been carried out by budding technique because it has advantages than other techniques. The weakness of budding techniques is many buds are dormant that can reach 20%, so in commercial nursery is disadvantage because to grow new shoots takes a long time and need extra cost. Dormancy mechanism can be removed by growth stimulating material. Growth regulator is a substance that can stimulate the growth of plants. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of plant growth regulator Rootone-f, GA3, Shallot Extract, Young Coconut Water on scion dormancy breaking of citrus budding and know the type and frequency of growth regulators are most effective. The hypothesis of this research were, 1) Provision of growth regulators are able to break dormancy of citrus budding results, 2) The type of growth regulator GA3 with 3 times spray showed the highest results. The research was conducted at Punten Experimental Farm, Research Institute for Citrus and Subtropical Fruit (Balitjestro) Batu, East Java from August until November 2014. The method that used in this research was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with addition growth regulators factors and spraying frequency, repeated 3 times with treatment unit of 4 plants. The treatments were: 1). RF-A (Spraying with Rootone-F, 1 time), 2). RF-B (Spraying with Rootone-F, 2 times), 3). RF-C (Spraying with Rootone-F, 3 times), 4). GA-A (Spraying with GA3, 1 time), 5). GA-B (Spraying with GA3, 2 times), 6). GA-C (Spraying with GA3, 3 times), 7). BM-A (Spraying with Shallot Extract, 1 time), 8). BM-B (Spraying with Shallots Extract, 2 times), 9). BM-C (Spraying with Shallots Extract, 3 times), 10). KM-A (Spraying with Coconut water, 1 times), 11). KM-B (Spraying with Coconut water, 2 times), 12). KM-C (Spraying with Coconut, 3 times) and 13). Control (not treated). The parameters observed included: bud burst speed observation, the percentage of buds burst (%), number of leaves (strands), shoot height (cm), rootstock diameter and shoots diameter (cm). The collected data was analyzed through analysis of CRD variance. If there is real difference in analysis of variety it will be tested with DMRT at level 5%. The results showed the provision of Plant Growth Regulators (PGR) have significant effect on the percentage of bud breaking age 28 HSP. PGR provides better results than the control (K) and the type of GA3 able to provide the highest average percentage. The results of research showed that highest percentage of bud breaking generated by GA3 growth regulators with 3 times spray (GAC) at 28 days after treatment and Coconut water with 3 times spray (KMC) at 84 days after treatment. Treatment of Rootone-f show the emergence of shoots faster than other treatments although not significantly different. In general, administration of growth regulators did not give significant differences in plant growth parameters such as shoot height, number of leaves, stem diameter and shoot.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/759/ 051509572
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130798
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