BKG

Anggraeni, MIta (2015) Keragaan Beberapa Genotip Jagung Pakan/ Yellow Corn (Zea Mays L.) Mutan Kolkisin Generasi M2. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Jagung merupakan palawija sumber karbohidrat, yang memegang peranan penting kedua setelah beras. Kebutuhan jagung di kalangan masyarakat terus meningkat namun produktivitas jagung di Indonesia masih belum stabil. Keadaan yang demikian membuat banyak dilakukan penelitian untuk menghasilkan benih unggul jagung dimana salah satunya dapat dirakit melalui proses mutasi buatan. Salah satu mutagen yang digunakan, yaitu kolkisin. Penelitian sebelumnya, yaitu generasi mutasi M1 yang dilakukan oleh Aili (2015) menggunakan material jagung inbrida yang sudah seragam diberi perlakuan kolkisin dengan konsentrasi 400 ppm dan 600 ppm, namun pada hasilnya menunjukkan adanya keragaman. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keragaan dan variasi dari populasi setiap perlakuan kolkisin dan individu jagung pakan/yellow corn (Zea mays L.) mutan kolkisin hasil seleksi M1. Hipotesis yang diajukan adalah Terdapat adanya variasi dari populasi setiap perlakuan kolkisin dan individu jagung pakan/yellow corn (Zea mays L.) mutan kolkisin hasil seleksi M1 yang diuji. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Oktober 2014 – Februari 2015 di dusun Areng Areng, kelurahan Dadaprejo, kec. Junrejo, kota Batu. Alat yang digunakan untuk kegiatan penanaman dan pemeliharaan ialah cangkul, sabit, gunting, kamera, kertas label, papan impraboard, spidol dan kertas penyungkup. Sedangkan alat ukur yang digunakan ialah meteran, penggaris, mikroskop, RHS color chart dan timbangan analitik. Bahan yang digunakan ialah bahan tanam yang berasal dari 2 galur jagung dengan 5 perlakuan (tanpa kolkisin (kontrol), 400 ppm, 600 ppm, kontrol x 400 ppm dan kontrol x 600 ppm) dan masing-masing perlakuan 7 nomor jagung pakan/yellow corn, pupuk kandang sapi + kambing, pupuk NPK (15-15-15), ZA, fungisida, insektisida dan kutex. Penelitian menggunakan metode single plant. Variabel pengamatan terbagi menjadi kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Variabel kuantitatif, yaitu tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, panjang daun, lebar daun, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbunga betina, panjang tongkol, umur panen, bobot tongkol, bobot 100 biji, panjang dan lebar stomata serta bobot pipilan kering. Variabel kualitatif, warna biji dan bentuk permukaan biji. Analisis untuk data kualitatif menggunakan pendekatan statistika deskriptif yang disajikan dalam bentuk diagram distribusi frekuensi untuk kategori masing-masing karakter warna biji dan bentuk permukaan biji. Sedangkan untuk analisis data kuantitatif menggunakan uji T pada taraf 5%. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan dari kedua galur perlakuan yang memperlihatkan perbedaan dengan tanaman kontrol adalah perlakuan kolkisin konsentrasi 600 ppm. Perbedaan fenotip pada Galur INC terjadi pada karakter tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun vi dan lebar daun yang mengalami penurunan, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbunga betina dan umur panen mengalami perpanjangan. Perbedaan fenotip Galur INF tanaman perlakuan kolkisin tumbuh lebih tinggi memiliki panjang daun, lebar daun, panjang stomata dan lebar stomata yang lebih besar, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbunga betina dan umur panen lebih cepat. Pada karakter komponen hasil dari kedua galur menunjukkan panjang tongkol, bobot tongkol dan bobot pipilan mengalami penurunan. Pengaruh kolkisin bersifat individual sehingga meskipun nilai KKG rendah masih berpeluang untuk mendapatkan individu terpilih. Nilai KKG berkisar pada 0% - 4,39%. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan individu terpilih memiliki nilai tinggi tanaman yang tinggi, jumlah daun banyak dan berukuran panjang serta lebar, umur berbunga jantan, umur berbunga betina dan umur panen standar, tongkol panjang, bobot tongkol, bobot 100 biji dan bobot pipilan tinggi serta ukuran panjang dan lebar stomata besar.

English Abstract

Corn is carbohydrate source taking the second important role after rice. The need of corn in society gets increased but the productivity of corn in Indonesia is still unstable. The condition makes many studies have been done to produce corn superior seeds where the one of the superior seeds can be produced by artificial mutation process. The one of mutagens used is colchicine. The previous study is generation of M mutation conducted by Aili (2015) uses inbrida corn in one kind which is given colchicine treatment with 400 ppm and 600 ppm concentrations, but the result shows there is variety. The objective of this research is to know the performance and variation of population in every colchicine treatment and individual of yellow corn mutated colchicine as the selection result of M1. The proposed hypothesis is there is variation of population in every colchicine treatment and individual of yellow corn mutated colchicine as the selection result of M1 that has been observed. The research was done on October 2014-February 2015 at Dadaprejo village, district Junrejo, Batu. The tools used to the planting activity and care are hoe, sickle, scissors, camera, label paper, impraboard, broadmarker and paper lid. Meanwhile, the measuring tools used are meter, ruler, microscope, RHS color chart and analytic scale. The materials used are two line corn with five treatments (without colchicine (control), 400 ppm, 600 ppm, control x 400 ppm and control x 600 ppm) and each treatment using 7 number of cob, goat + cow manure, NPK fertilizer (15-15-15), ZA, fungicide, insecticide, and nail polish. This research uses single plant method. The observation variables are divided into qualitative and quantitative. The quantitative variables are plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, days to tasseling, days to silking, cob length, days of harvest, cob weight, weight of 100 seeds, length and width of stomata and also the weight of corn seed. The qualitative variables are the seed colour and shape of upper surface of seed. The analysis of qualitative data uses descriptive statistic approach described in a diagram of frequency distribution to the category of each character of seed colour and shape of upper surface of seed. Meanwhile to analyze the quantitative data it uses T test in 5% level. Based on the research result of two treatment line that shows the difference with control plant is colchicine treatment with 600 ppm concentration. The fenotype difference in INC line happens at the character of the plant height, the number of leaves and leaf width that get decreased, days to tasseling, days to silking and the days of harvest that get extended. The fenotype difference of INF line at a plant with colchicine treatment are grow higher having leaf length, leaf width, length and width of stomata that are bigger, the days to tasseling, days to silking and days of harvest viii that are faster. At the component character of the result from the two line show the cob length, the cob weight and the weight of corn seed that get decreased. The influence of colchicine has individual characteristic so that although CVG is low it still can be used to get a selected individual. The range value of CVG is 0% - 4,39%. Based on the observation result, the selected individual has high percentage of plant height, many numbers of leaves have length and width size, days to tasseling, days to silking and days of harvest is standart, cob is length, cob weight, weight of 100 seeds and weight of corn seed that is high and also the size of the length and width of stomata that is big.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/681/ 051507674
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130712
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