BKG

Satriyo, TaufikAdi (2015) Pengaruh Posisi Dan Waktu Defoliasi Daun Pada Pertumbuhan, Hasil Dan Mutu Benih Jagung (Zea Mays L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Produksi jagung mempunyai peranan yang penting dalam pengembangan industri di Indonesia karena jagung menjadi bahan baku untuk industri pengolahan pangan maupun industri pakan ternak. Kebiasaan petani melakukan defoliasi seluruh daun dibawah tongkol dengan menyisakan satu daun di bawah tongkol pada berbagai umur tanaman yang untuk pakan ternak. Defoliasi daun apabila tidak dilakukan pada posisi, jumlah daun dan waktu defoliasi daun yang tepat akan dapat mengurangi translokasi asimilat yang dihasilkan sehingga dapat menurunkan pertumbuhan, hasil dan mutu benih. Pada penelitian ini penulis melakukan penelitian defoliasi daun pada beberapa posisi dan waktu defoliasi untuk mengetahui kombinasi perlakuan yang tepat pada posisi dan waktu defoliasi daun pada tanaman jagung (Zea mays L.) guna meningkatkan pertumbuhan, hasil dan mutu benih jagung. Diharapkan kombinasi defolisi daun di atas dan di bawah tongkol (bunga jantan, daun bendera dan 2 helai daun paling bawah) pada 77 hari setelah tanam (HST) akan meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan hasil, serta menjaga mutu benih (viabilitas benih). Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Maret hingga Agustus 2014 di UPT Pengembangan Benih Palawija, Singosari-Malang. Uji kadar air dan viabilias benih dilaksanakan pada bulan September hingga November di Laboratorium Pemuliaan Tanaman Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya. Alat yang digunakan ialah cangkul, timbangan analitik, luxmeter, oven, jangka sorong, penggaris atau meteran, gunting, cawan petri, pinset, leaf area meter (LAM), moisture tester dan kamera. Bahan yang digunakan ialah benih jagung varietas Bisma, kertas merang, insektisida dan pupuk. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) sederhana, terdiri dari 13 level perlakuan dan diulang 3 kali, sehingga diperoleh 39 satuan percobaan. Adapun perlakuan tersebut meliputi: D0= tanpa defoliasi (kontrol), DAT 70= defoliasi bagian atas (bunga jantan, daun bendera dan 2 helai daun di bawah daun bendera) pada 70 HST, DAT 77= defoliasi bagian atas pada 77 HST, DAT 84= defoliasi bagian atas pada 84 HST, DBT 70= defoliasi daun di bawah tongkol (3 helai daun paling bawah) pada 70 HST, DBT 77= defoliasi daun di bawah tongkol pada 77 HST, DBT 84= defoliasi daun di bawah tongkol pada 84 HST, DAB 70= defoliasi daun di atas dan di bawah tongkol (bunga jantan, daun bendera dan 2 helai daun paling bawah) pada 70 HST, DAB 77= defoliasi daun di atas dan di bawah tongkol pada 77 HST, DAB 84= defoliasi daun di atas dan di bawah tongkol pada 84 HST, DST 70= defoliasi seluruh daun dibawah tongkol dengan menyisakan satu daun di bawah tongkol (perlakuan petani) pada 70 HST, DST 77= defoliasi seluruh daun dibawah tongkol dengan menyisakan satu daun di bawah tongkol pada 77 HST, DST 84= defoliasi seluruh daun dibawah tongkol dengan menyisakan satu daun di bawah tongkol pada 84 HST. ii Pengamatan dilakukan secara non destruktif dan destruktif, dengan mengambil dua tanaman contoh untuk setiap perlakuan. Pengamatan non destruktif dilakukan pada saat tanaman berumur 20, 35, 50 dan 65 hari setelah tanam (HST). Pengamatan destruktif dilakukan pada saat tanaman jagung sudah didefoliasi 88, 95, 102 dan 109 HST. Pengukuran intensitas cahaya matahari dilakukan 3 hari setelah didefoliasi pada masing-masing perlakuan yaitu 73, 80 dan 87 HST. Pengamatan komponen hasil meliputi: panjang tongkol tanpa klobot, diameter tongkol tanpa klobot, berat biji tiap tongkol, bobot 1000 biji, bobot hasil biji (t ha-1), pengujian viabilitas benih dan kadar air. Analisis pertumbuhan tanaman meliputi: indeks luas daun, efisiensi penangkapan cahaya atau intersepsi, Laju Pertumbuhan Tanaman (LPT). Data pengamatan yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis ragam (uji F) pada taraf 5% untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan. Apabila hasil nyata maka dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf nyata 5% untuk mengetahui perbedaan diantara perlakuan. Untuk mengetahui perbandingan tingkat sigifikasi faktor pertama dengan faktor ke dua dilakukan dengan uji T pada taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada komponen pertumbuhan dan hasil. Pada perlakuan defoliasi daun di atas dan bawah tongkol pada 77 HST atau perlakuan DAB 77 menunjukkan hasil berbeda nyata dibandingkan dengan perlakuan kontrol (D0). Perlakuan DAB 77 berpengaruh nyata pada akhir pengamatan 109 hari setelah tanam yang mampu meningkatkan berat kering total tanaman dari 343,3 g tan-1 menjadi 392,3 g tan-1 atau dapat meningkatkan sebesar 12,49% dibandingkan D0. Pada hasil panen perlakuan DAB 77 mampu meningkatkan 6,901 t ha-1 menjadi 8,898 t ha-1 pipilan kering atau dapat meningkatkan hasil panen sebesar 22,44% dibandingkan D0. Sementara viabilitas benih bertahan baik dengan lama penyimpanan selama 3 bulan dengan kadar air benih 9-12%.

English Abstract

Maize production has an important role in the development of industry in Indonesia as corn into raw materials for the food processing industry and animal feed industry. Habits farmers throughout the leaf defoliation under cob with leaves one leaf below the cob at various ages crops for animal feed. Leaf defoliation if its not done at the position, number of leaves and leaf defoliation right time will be able to reduce the translocation of assimilates produced so as to reduce the growth, yield and seed quality. In this study the authors conducted research at several positions leaf defoliation and defoliation time to find the right combination of treatments on the position and time of defoliation of leaves in maize (Zea mays L.) in order to enhance the growth, yield and quality of maize seed. Expected combination defolisi leaves above and below the cob (male flower, flag leaf and 2 leaves at the bottom) at 77 day after planting will increase growth and yield, as well as maintaining the quality of the seed (seed viability). The study was conducted to know the right combination of treatments at the time of defoliation and leaf defoliation position in maize (Zea mays L.) in order to enhance the growth, yield and quality of maize seed. Expected combination defoliation leaves above and below the cob (male flower, flag leaf and 2 leaves at the bottom) at 77 DAP will increase growth and yield, as well as maintaining the quality of the seed (seed viability). The experiment was conducted from March to August 2014 in UPT Pengembangan Benih Palawija (Singosari-Malang). Test the water content and seed viability held in September to November in the Laboratory of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture UB. The tool used is a hoe, analytical balance, luxmeter, oven, calipers, ruler, scissors, petri dish, tweezers, leaf area meter (LAM), moisture tester and camera. The material used is corn seed varieties bisma, paper straw, insecticides and fertilizers. The design used in this study is a randomized block design consisting of 13 levels of treatment and repeated 3 times, in order to obtain 39 units experiment. The treatment includes: D0 = without defoliation (control), DAT 70 = defoliation upper (male flower, flag leaf and 2 leaves below the flag leaf) at 70 DAP, DAT 77 = defoliation top at 77 DAP, DAT 84 = defoliation top at 84 DAP, DBT 70 = defoliation of leaves under the cob (3 leaves at the bottom) at 70 DAP, DBT 77 = defoliation of leaves under the cob at 77 DAP, DBT 84 = defoliation of leaves under the cob at 84 DAP, DAB 70 = defoliation of leaves above and below the cob (male flower, flag leaf and 2 leaves at the bottom) at 70 DAP, DAB 77 = defoliation of leaves above and below the cob at 77 DAT, DAB 84 = defoliation of leaves in above and below the cob at 84 DAP, DST 70 = defoliation whole leaf below the cob with leaves one leaf below the cob (treatment farmer) at 70 DAP, DST 77 = defoliation whole leaf below the cob with leaves one leaf below the cob at 77 DAP, DST 84 = defoliation whole leaf below the cob with leaves one leaf below the cob at 84 DAP. iv Observations were made in non destructive and destructive, to take two examples for each treatment plant. Non destructive observation made on old plants 20, 35, 50 and 65 days after planting (DAP). Destructive observations made during the corn crop has been defoliation 88, 95, 102 and 109 days after planting. Light intensity measurements performed 3 days has defolation in each treatment is 73, 80 and 87 days after planting. Observations yield components include: long cob without husks, cobs without husks diameter, seed weight per cob, 1000 seed weight, weight yield (t ha-1), seed viability testing and water content. Analysis of plant growth include: leaf area index, the efficiency of light capture or interception, crop growth rate (CGR). Observational data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (F test) at 5% level to determine the effect of treatment. If the real results then followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% significance level to determine differences among treatments. To determine the level comparison significance first factor by a factor of two to do with T test at 5% level. The results present, the defoliation treatments on above and below of the cob at 77 DAP had the growth and yield of maize significantly different compared to the control. The DAB 77 treatment significantly different at 109 DAP which was increase the total plant dry weight at 343,3 g plant-1 to 392,3 g plant-1 or approximately by 12,49% compared to D0. Yields of DAB 77 treatment can improve 6.901 t ha-1 to 8.898 t ha-1 dry seed or can increase the yield by 22.44% compared with D0. Mean while the storage more than 3 months can maintain the seed viability and the water content of seed about 9-12%.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/67/051501754
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130699
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