BKG

Prastini, Lela (2015) Pengaruh Perbedaan Waktu Emaskulasi Terhadap Keberhasilan Persilangan Tanaman Padi Hitam X Padi Putih (Oryza Sativa L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Padi merupakan tanaman pangan dari keluarga Graminae. Data impor beras yang dilakukan Indonesia pada tahun 2012 sebesar 1.810.372,30 ton menunjukkan bahwa kebutuhan beras tidak bisa dipenuhi dari produksi beras dalam negeri. Salah satu cara yang diharapkan untuk meningkatkan produksi padi ke depan ialah melalui program pemuliaan. Saat ini belum banyak pemulia padi yang meneliti tentang padi hitam untuk meningkatkan produksi beras. Peningkatan mutu genetik melalui program pemuliaan dapat dilakukan dengan persilangan. Namun, persilangan antara padi hitam dengan padi putih masih jarang dilakukan. Oleh karena itu, persilangan buatan antara padi hitam dengan padi putih dilakukan dalam penelitian ini dengan harapan dapat dihasilkan tanaman padi hitam yang berumur genjah, anakan produktif banyak dan hasilnya tinggi. Tanaman padi termasuk tanaman yang menyerbuk sendiri. Kegiatan emaskulasi perlu dilakukan sebelum bunga mekar. Stadia bunga yang baik untuk emaskulasi ialah 1 hari sebelum bunga mekar dengan posisi ujung benang sari berada di pertengahan bunga, sehingga hari selanjutnya, putik sudah matang dan siap untuk diserbuki. Namun pada penelitian ini, emaskulasi tidak hanya dilakukan 1 hari sebelum bunga mekar melainkan 2 dan 3 hari sebelum bunga mekar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah untuk mempelajari waktu emaskulasi yang tepat terhadap keberhasilan persilangan tanaman padi hitam dengan padi putih. Hipotesis yang diajukan ialah perlakuan emaskulasi sehari sebelum bunga mekar dapat meningkatkan keberhasilan pada persilangan tanaman padi hitam dengan padi putih. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kelurahan Dadaprejo, kecamatan Junrejo, kota Batu, Provinsi Jawa Timur dengan ketinggian tempat 600 m dpl, curah hujan 1600 mm/tahun, suhu udara minimum 18-240C dan suhu udara maksimum 28-320C serta kelembaban udara 75-98% dan jenis tanah alluvial. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Desember 2014 sampai April 2015. Alat yang digunakan ialah sabit, cangkul, pinset, gunting kecil, klip, kaca pembesar, pot, kamera dan alat tulis. Bahan yang digunakan ialah padi hitam Cempo Ireng dan Jawa Melik serta padi putih varietas Ciherang dan iv Pandanwangi, air, alkohol 70%, glacyne bags (kantong transparan), benang dan kertas label, papan nama dan pupuk organik. Persilangan antara padi hitam dengan padi putih dilakukan secara resiprokal. Untuk set persilangannya terdiri dari : Pandanwangi X Jawa Melik, Jawa Melik X Pandanwangi, Ciherang X Jawa Melik, Jawa Melik X Ciherang, Pandanwangi X Cempo Ireng, Cempo Ireng X Pandanwangi, Ciherang X Cempo Ireng dan Cempo Ireng X Ciherang. Waktu emaskulasi yang dilakukan yaitu 1, 2 dan 3 hari sebelum bunga mekar. Variabel pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi persentase keberhasilan persilangan, umur berbunga (hari), umur pengisian bulir padi (hari) dan warna biji padi hasil persilangan. Data hasil pengamatan disusun dalam tabel kemudian dianalisis secara statistik dengan menggunakan uji F untuk mengetahui homogenitas. Uji t digunakan untuk mengetahui perbedaan rerata dari dua perlakuan yang diketahui dari perbandingan t hitung yang dibandingkan dengan t tabel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata keberhasilan persilangan pada berbagai waktu emaskulasi tidak berbeda nyata sehingga H1 ditolak. Artinya pada berbagai waktu emaskulasi, rata-rata menunjukkan keberhasilan persilangan yang sama. Jadi, perbedaan waktu emaskulasi tidak berpengaruh terhadap keberhasilan persilangan. Rerata keberhasilan persilangan pada seluruh set persilangan menunjukkan hasil tidak berbeda nyata. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa kedua tetua mempunyai peran yang sama. Umur panen padi hitam lebih lama daripada padi putih karena umur berbunga padi hitam lebih dalam daripada padi putih. Rerata umur berbunga Ciherang 103,50 HSS, Pandanwangi 102,00 HSS, Cempo Ireng 130,00 HSS dan Jawa Melik yaitu 117,00 HSS. Lama stadia pembungaannya berkisar antara 8-10 hari. Masa pengisian bulir padi rata-rata berkisar antara 30-33 hari setelah persilangan. Rerata masa pengisian bulir padi hasil persilangan pada berbagai waktu emaskulasi dan berbagai set persilangan menunjukkan hasil yang tidak berbeda nyata. Warna biji pada hasil persilangan tergantung pada warna biji tetua betina. Pada tetua betina padi hitam menunjukkan hasil warna biji hasil persilangan pada stadia masak susu berwarna hijau-merah keunguan, stadia ½ masak dan masak penuh berwarna ungu. Pada tetua betina padi putih menunjukkan hasil warna biji hasil persilangan pada stadia masak susu berwarna hijau, stadia ½ masak berwarna putih dan stadia masak penuh berwarna coklat muda.

English Abstract

Rice is a food crop from Gramineae family. Data of rice import conducted by the Indonesian in 2012 amounted to 1,810,372.30 tons, which showed that rice needs can’t be completed from domestic rice production only. One solution which is expected to increase future rice production is breeding program. There were not many rice breeders who conduct a research on black rice to increase rice production. Genetic quality enhancement from breeding program to increase rice production can be done by crossing. However, a crossing between black rice with white rice is rarely done. Therefore, artificial pollination between black rice with white rice will be conducted in this research with the hope of producing black rice crops with short age, high numbers of productive tillers and high yield. Rice crop is typically self-pollinated. The emasculation need to be done before flowering. The good floret phase in emasculation is one day before flowering with the position of anther’s tip is in the center of spikelet, so that the next day, the stigma’s become mature and ready to begin pollinated. However in this research, the emasculation not only done one day before flowering but it done two and three days before flowering. The aim of this research was to study the appropriate emasculation time for the success of black rice and white rice crossing. The hypothesis of this research was treatment of emasculation that was done one day before flowering may increase the success in the crossing between black rice and white rice. This research was conducted in the Dadaprejo village, Sub-district Junrejo, Batu City, East Java Province on 600 m above sea level, rain level 1600 mm/year, minimum temperature 18-24oC and maximum temperature 28-32oC, humidity level 75-98%, and alluvial soil type. The research took time on December 2014 until April 2015. The tools used were sickles, hoes, tweezers, small scissors, clips, magnifying glass, pots, camera and stationeries. The materials used Cempo Ireng and Jawa Melik black rice, Ciherang and Pandanwangi white rice, water, alcohol 70%, transparent paper bags, yarns, labels, name boards and organic manure. This research consisted of artificial pollination. The crossing process was done reciprocally. The crossing sets were as following: Pandanwangi X Jawa vi Melik, Jawa Melik X Pandanwangi, Ciherang X Jawa Melik, Jawa Melik X Ciherang, Pandanwangi X Cempo Ireng, Cempo Ireng X Pandanwangi, Ciherang X Cempo Ireng and Cempo Ireng X Ciherang. Before the crossings were done, the female parents were emasculated. The emasculation times were 1 day before flowering, 2 days before flowering, and 3 days before flowering. The variables of observation that was done consists of the success rate of the crossing, flowering age (days), grain filling stage (days after crossing) and grains color from the crossing result. The observation data was arranged in a table and then analyzed statistically using F-test to determine homogeneity. Then t-tests were conducted to compare the averages of each treatment. Result of the research suggests that averages success rate ware not significantly affected by emasculation time, thus the H1 was rejected. It means that any emasculation time yielded the same result. So, there were no any effect on emasculation timing difference to the success of crossing. Average success rate on all crossing sets showed no significant difference. It means that each of parent has same role. Black rice was longer than white rice in harvest age because the flowering ages of black rice were deeper than white rice. Average flowering age of Ciherang was 103.50 DAS, Pandanwangi was 102.00 DAS, Cempo Ireng was 107.00 DAS and Jawa Melik was 91.00 DAS. The length of flowering phase was around 8-10 days. The grain filling stage was around 30-33 days after crossing. Average grain filling time on emasculation timing difference and variation crossing sets didn’t show any significant difference. Grain colors of the crossing results were depending on the female parent’s trait. The crossing with black rice as female parent resulted on purplish red-green colored grains on milk grain stage and purple colored grains on dough grain stage and mature grain stage. Meanwhile the crossing with white rice as the female parent shows that green colored grains on milk grain stage, white colored grains on dough grain stage, and light brown colored grains on mature stage.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/377/ 051505307
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130378
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