BKG

Prayoga, KharismaMarta (2015) Kajian Penggunaan Mulsa Plastik Dan Tiga Generasi Umbi bibit Yang Berbeda Pada Komoditas Kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.) Varietas Granola. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Kebutuhan rata-rata kentang pertahun masyarakat Indonesia mencapai 1.178.000 ton sedangkan produksi nasional tahun 2012 hanya mencapai 1.094.240 ton sehingga untuk menutupi kebutuhan kentang harus melakukan impor kentang dari Negara penghasil kentang lainya (BKP, 2013). Produktivitas kentang di Indonesia masih tergolong rendah bila di bandingkan dengan Negara-negara maju. Produksi kentang di Indonesia hanya 16,58 ton per hektar sedangkan di Negara-Negara Eropa mencapai 35 ton per hektar sedangkan potensi produksi kentang nasional sebesar 20 ton per hektar (BPS, 2013). Rendahnya produktivitas ini di sebabkan beberapa hal seperti varietas yang akan dikembangkan terbatas, mutu benih yang digunakan rendah, teknik budidaya yang kurang tepat serta bibit kentang yang di produksi secara turun-temurun (Sunaryono, 2007). Selain bibit yang bermutu, permasalahan lain yang terjadi pada tanaman kentang ialah tidak mampu untuk beradaptasi pada suhu tinggi terutama suhu udara pada malam hari sehingga membatasi produksi umbi kentang di daerah tropika (Rubatzky dan Yamaguchi, 1998). Sehingga perlu diadakannya suatu penelitian untuk memodifikasi tingginya suhu tanah dengan aplikasi penggunaan mulsa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan jenis mulsa plastik dengan kombinasi warna yang terbaik bagi pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman kentang. Hipotesis yang diajukan adalah 1) penggunaan mulsa plastik dengan kombinasi warna yang berbeda akan berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil produksi tanaman kentang, 2) Mulsa plastik hitam perak merupakan mulsa plastik dengan kombinasi warna yang terbaik dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman kentang. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Maret 2014 sampai dengan Juni 2014. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Desa Wonokerto, Kecamatan Sukapura, Kabupaten Probolinggo. Berada di ketinggian 1300 m di atas pemukaan laut sehingga tergolong dataran tinggi. Curah hujan rata-rata 1807 mm/ tahun dengan suhu udara antara 18oC – 26oC, dan kelembaban udara antara 75 – 85 %, dan jenis tanah Andisol. Alat yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah alat pengolah tanah, timbangan analitik, termometer suhu udara, knapsack sprayer, oven, Leaf Area Meter (LAM), alat pelubang plastik, selang air, penggaris, dan kamera digital. Bahan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah umbi bibit kentang varietas Granola lokal, umbi bibit kentang varietas Granola generasi tiga (G3), umbi bibit kentang varietas Granola generasi empat (G4) pupuk kandang Ayam, pupuk Urea, pupuk SP-36, pupuk KCL dan ZA sesuai dengan dosis rekomendasi, mulsa plastik hitam perak, mulsa plastik perak perak, fungisida, insektisida, bakterisida. Metode yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 12 perlakuan yang diulang 3 kali, yaitu (P1) : Tanpa mulsa + umbi bibit G3 (P2) : Mulsa plastik hitam perak + umbi bibit G3, (P3): Mulsa plastik perak + umbi bibit G3, (P4) : Mulsa Plastik hitam + umbi bibit G3, (P5): Tanpa mulsa + umbi bibit G4, (P6) : Mulsa plastik hitam perak + umbi bibit G4, (P7): Mulsa plastik perak + umbi bibit G4, (P8) : Mulsa plastik hitam + umbi bibit G4, (P9) : Tanpa mulsa + umbi bibit lokal, (P10) : Mulsa plastik hitam perak + umbi bibit lokal, (P11) : Mulsa plastik perak + umbi bibit lokal, (P12) : Mulsa plastik hitam + umbi bibit lokal. Terdapat 3 jenis pengamatan yaitu pengamatan pertumbuhan tanaman, pengamatan komponen hasil dan pengamatan lingkungan yang dilakukan pada 4, 6, 8, 10 MST. Untuk variabel pengamatan pertumbuhan tanaman meliputi tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, luas daun, indeks panen, dan laju pertumbuhan tanaman. Untuk variabel pengamatan komponen hasil yaitu berat segar umbi per petak, berat segar umbi panen total dan berat segar umbi berdasarkan klasifikasi umbi konsumsi yang dilaksanakan pada saat tanaman siap panen yang di tandakan dengan daun dan batang tanaman mengering 80%. Untuk variabel pengamatan lingkungan yaitu pengamatan suhu tanah pada kedalaman 25 cm menggunakan thermometer. Data yang didapatkan dari hasil pengamatan selanjutnya dilakukan analisis dengan menggunakan analisis ragam (uji F) dengan taraf 5% dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui nyata tidaknya pengaruh dari perlakuan. Apabila terdapat beda nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT dengan taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian menunujukan bahawa terdapat pengaruh nyata akibat penggunaan berbagai macam mulsa plastik dan Generasi umbi bibit yang berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman. Pengaruh nyata tersebut meliputi tinggi tanaman (42 dan 56 hst), jumlah daun (42 dan 56 hst), luas daun (42 dan 56 hst), indeks luas daun (42 dan 56 hst), laju pertumbuhan tanaman (28 – 42 hst), bobot kering umbi (56 dan 70 hst), bobot kering total tanaman (56 dan 70 hst). Pada komponen hasil perlakuan P2, P3, P6, P7, P10, dan P11 mampu menghasilkan bobot segar umbi panen lebih besar dibanding perlakuan P1, P5, dan P9 yang merupakan perlakuan kontrol. Perlakuan P2, P3, P4, P6, P7, P8, P10, P11, dan P12 memiliki potensi hasil panen sebesar 23,57 – 32,95 ton ha¯¹. Sedangkan perlakuan kontrol P1, P5, dan P9 memiliki potensi hasil panen sebesar 12,60 – 16,08 ton ha¯¹.

English Abstract

The needs of potatoes of Indonesian were reached 1.178.000 tons per year while national production in 2012 only reached 1.094.240 tons. To cover the needs of potatoes have to imports potatoes from the countries which producing potatoes ( bkp other , 2013 ). Potato productivity in Indonesia are still classified as low than developed countries . Potato production in Indonesia is only 16,58 tons per hectare while in european countries are reached 35 tons per hectare while potential production national of potatoes about 20 tons per hectare ( bps , 2013 ) . The low productivity is caused by several reasons such as limited varieties to be developed, the quality of seeds used low , cultivation techniques, such as bad seeds and potatoes that are in production in an hereditary manner ( sunaryono , 2007 ). In addition to quality seeds, another problem that occurs in the potatoes plants was that capability to adapt at high temperatures especially the air temperature at night so as to confine the production of potato tubers as in the tropics ( rubatzky and yamaguchi , 1998 ) .So we needed safety a research to modify the high temperature the ground by the application of the use of mulch. This research aims to get a kind of mulch plastic with a combination of the color of the best for growth and the results of potato plants .Proposed is a hypothesis that 1) of the use of plastic mulch with a combination of different colors will impact on growth and the results of the production of potato plants , 2)black plastic mulch is mulching silver plastic with a combination of the color of the best in increasing growth and the results of potato plants . This research be conducted in march 2014 until june 2014.This study was conducted in the village wonokerto, sukapura sub-district kabupaten probolinggo.Be at a height of 1300 m above sea level so that is considered to be of the highlands. The average rainfall 1807 mm a year with the temperature of the air between 18˚c -26˚c, and humidity of the air between 75 -85 % and a type of soil andisol.An instrument used in this research is processing equipment the land they believe that the scales analytic, a thermometer air temperature, knapsack a sprayer, an oven, leaf area meters ( lam ), instrument pit plastic hose water, a ruler, and digital camera. Material used to research this is the seeds of potato tubers varieties granola local potato tubers seeds varieties Granola generation three ( G3 ) seeds of potato tubers varieties granola generation four ( G4 ) manure chicken fertilizer, fertilizer sp-36, fertilizer kcl and za in accordance with a dose of recommendations, mulching plastic black silver mulching plastic silver silver fungicide, insecticides on bactericide. Methods used are thoughts of random groups ( rack ) with 12 treatment that repeated three times namely ( P1 ): without mulch + tuber seedlings g3 ( P2 ): mulch black plastic silver + tuber seedlings g3, ( P3 ): mulch plastic silver + tuber seedlings g3, ( P4 ): mulch black plastic + tuber seedlings g3, ( P5 ): without mulch + tuber seedlings g4, ( P6 ): mulch black plastic silver + tuber seedlings g4, ( P7 ): mulch plastic silver + tuber seedlings g4, ( P8 ): mulch black plastic + tuber seedlings g4, ( P9 ): without mulch + tuber local seedlings (P10 ): mulch black plastic silver + tuber local seedlings ( P11 ): mulch plastic silver + tuber local seedlings ( P12 ): mulch plastic black tuber seeds + local. There are three of the observation that the growth of plants observation of the results and the environment is at 4, 6, 8, 10 mst. Variables covering for the growth of a plant, number of leaves, and broad leaves the harvest, and growth of plants.The results of the observations are variable heavy fresh tuber, a tenement the juicy tuber severe harvesting total weight based on tubers and some classifications tuber consumption is at the ready to harvest are showed in leaves and stems of dry 80 %. For observation of environmental variables namely observation ground temperature at depths 25 cm using thermometer. The data was obtained from the results of observations next analysis was conducted by the use of analysis test multiform ( f ) with 5 percent level with the purpose to know real advisability of treatment influence. If there was real difference then continued with bnt with test level of 5 %. The results of research shows there are real influence due to use various kinds of plastic mulch and the generation tubers different seeds on the growth of plants .The influence of real has included plant height ( 42 and 56 hst ) , number of leaves ( 42 and 56 hst ) , leaves size ( 42 and 56 hst ) , an index leaves size ( 42 and 56 hst ) , the rate of the growth plants ( 28 - 42 hst ) dry tuber weight ( 56 and 70 hst ) , dry weight total plant ( 56 and 70 hst ) .In components p2 the results of treatment , P3 , P6 , P7 , P10 , and P11 capable of producing fresh weight tubers harvest was bigger than P1 treatment , P5 , and P9 which is control treatment . P2 treatment , P3 , P4 , P6 , P7 , P8 , P10 , P11 , and P12 have the yields potensial that is 23,57 - 32,95 tons ha ¯¹ . While treatment p1 control , P5 , and P9 have the yields potensial that is 12,60 - 16,08 tons ha ¯¹ .

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/21/051500680
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130194
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