BKG

Meliala, JubleamHarisSembiring (2015) Pengaruh Iradiasi Sinar Gamma Terhadap Perubahan Fenotipik Tanaman Padi Gogo (Oryza Sativa L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Padi (Oryza sativa L.) ialah salah satu tanaman yang menjadi sumber bahan makanan pokok bagi penduduk Indonesia. Kebutuhan bahan pangan; padi terus meningkat dari tahun ke tahun seiring dengan peningkatan jumlah penduduk Indonesia dengan laju pertumbuhan 1.49% per tahun, ditambah perubahan pola konsumsi penduduk dari non beras ke beras, sehingga diyakini kebutuhan beras akan terus meningkat. Sehingga produksi tanaman padi harus ditingkatkan. Peningkatan produktivitas dapat dilakukan dengan metode persilangan, induksi mutasi, keragaman somaklonal, seleksi invitro dan metode lainnya. Penggunaan tenaga nuklir (iradiasi sinar gamma) seperti induksi mutasi dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan keragaman genetik dan fenotip sehingga memungkinkan pemulia melakukan seleksi sesuai dengan tujuan pemuliaan yang dikehendaki. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perubahan fenotipik tanaman padi gogo yang diirradiasi sinar gamma dengan dosis 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy dan 250 Gy. Adapun hipotesis yang diajukan adalah melalui iradiasi sinar gamma maka akan terjadi perubahan fenotipik tanaman padi gogo yang telah diirradiasi sinar gamma. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai bulan Mei 2013 hingga Oktober 2013, perlakuan iradiasi dengan sinar gamma dilakukan di Pusat Aplikasi Isotop dan radiasi, BATAN, Pasar Jum’at, Jakarta. Penyemaian benih hasil radiasi dilakukan di Lab. Biotek Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, aklimatisasi bibit dilakukan di greenhouse Balai Besar Pelatihan Pertanian (BBPP) dan penanaman bibit beserta seleksi tanaman mutan pertama (M1) dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan BBPP, Ketindan, Lawang, Kabupaten Malang, Jawa Timur. Bahan yang digunakan adalah benih tanaman padi gogo kultivar Wangkariri (warna beras merah) dengan kadar air 11.8 %, pupuk kandang, pupuk Urea, pupuk KCl dan pupuk SP-36. Alat-alat yang digunakan adalah iradiator Gamma Chamber 4000 A (sumber Co60), cangkul, tugal, alat pengukur klorofil (Minolta Chlorophyll Meter SPAD-502), meteran, timbangan analitik, oven, kayu/tiang, kamera dan alat tulis. Benih padi gogo kultivar Wangkariri diiradiasi sinar gamma dengan lima taraf dosis, yaitu 0 (D0), 100 (D1), 150 (D2), 200 (D3) dan 250 (D4) Gy. Dosis 0 (D0) digunakan sebagai kontrol. Setiap dosis iradiasi menggunakan 100 tanaman (ulangan). Metode pengamatan yang dilakukan dengan metode Single Plant, dimana pengamatan dilakukan pada setiap 100 tanaman per dosis. pengamatan dilakukan pada seluruh tanaman (100 tanaman tiap dosis iradiasi) dengan variabel pengamatan tinggi tanaman, luas daun bendera, kandungan klorofil, jumlah anakan produktif, panjang malai, jumlah gabah tiap malai, persentase gabah bernas dan hasil panen per rumpun. Untuk melihat kestabilan mutan, populasi masing-masing mutan dibandingkan dengan populasi wild type dan induk, selanjutnya dilakukan analisis keragaman tanaman dengan menggunakan softwere Microsoft Excell. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian maka diperoleh bahwa terjadi perubahan fenotipik tanaman padi gogo yang diirradiasi dengan sinar gamma pada dosis 0 Gy (D0), 100 Gy (D1), 150 Gy (D2), 200 Gy (D3) dan 250 Gy (D4). Perubahan fenotipik yang terjadi seperti adanya peningkatan tinggi tanaman, penambahan jumlah anakan produktif, pemanjangan malai, peningkatan luas daun, peningkatan bobot gabah per rumpun, peningkatan jumlah gabah per malai dan peningkatan kadar klorofil. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan rata rata karakter fenotipik tinggi tanaman dapat dilihat bahwa tanaman tertinggi berasal dari dosis 200 Gy, sedangkan karakter jumlah anakan produktif memliki jumlah anakan yang sama pada semua dosis irradiasi, karakter panjang malai tertinggi pada dosis 100 Gy, sedangkan karkter luas daun tertinggi berasal dari dosis 250 Gy, pengamatan karakter persentase gabah bernas tertinggi berasal dari perlakuan kontrol, dan hasil tanaman tertinggi adalah pada dosis 100 Gy dan karakter kadar klorofil pengamatan generatif tertinggi berasal dari dosis 200 Gy. Berdasarkan nilai keragaman tanaman, nilai keragaman genetik tanaman yang mendapatkan perlakuan iradiasi sinar gamma mengalami peningkatan dibandingkan dengan tanaman kontrol, hal ini menjelaskan bahwa faktor genetik tanaman yang disebabkan oleh iradiasi sinar gamma lebih dominan mempengaruhi tanaman dibandingkan faktor lingkungan. Pada karakter tinggi tanaman, semua perlakuan memiliki kriteria ragam yang luas bila dibandingkan dengan nilai 2 standar deviasi (2sd) ragam genetik, dimana karakter tersebut memiliki peluang dalam usaha perbaikan genetik tanaman dan berdasarkan analisis ragam karakter tinggi tanaman bahwa perlakuan iradiasi sinar gamma berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap karakter tinggi tanaman. Kakakter jumlah anakan produktif, memiliki keragaman dalam kriteria yang sempit pada perlakuan D1, D2 dan D3 sedangkan kriteria yang luas pada D4, sedangkan berdasarkan analisis ragam perlakuan iradiasi sinar gamma berpengaruh sangat nyata pada karakter jumlah anakan produktif. Pengamatan pada karakter panjang malai juga dilakukan analisis ragam, berdasarkan nilai keragaman genetik tanaman semua perlakuan memiliki kriteria keragaman yang luas, kecuali pada perlakuan D2 memiliki kriteria keragaman yang sempit, berdasarkan analisis ragam karakter panjang malai memberikan hasil bahwa perlakuan iradiasi sinar gamma berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap karakter panjang malai. Berbeda dengan karakter panjang malai, pada karakter luas daun memiliki kriteria keragaman yang luas pada semua perlakuan, sedangkan berdasarkan analisis ragam menyimpulkan bahwa perlakuan iradiasi sinar gamma berpengaruh sangat nyata. Pengamatan pada karakter hasil tanaman dibagi menjadi tiga yaitu malai utama, anakan dan total, berdasarkan kriteria keragaman pada malai utama semua perlakuan masuk dalam kriteria sempit, sedangkan malai anakan semua perlakuan masuk dalam kriteria sempit dan malai total semua perlakuan masuk dalam kriteria sempit. Berdasarkan analisis ragam total hasil tanaman dapat dilihat bahwa perlakuan iraidasi sinar gamma berpengaruh tidak nyata dimana semua perlakuan sama dalam karakter hasil tanaman. Berdasarkan pengukuran nilai keragaman pada karakter kadar korofil tanaman dapat dilihat bahwa kedua pengamatan (Vegetatif dan Generatif) masuk dalam kriteria keragaman yang luas, berdasarkan analisis ragam pada pada kedua pengamatan memberikan hasil bahwa perlakuan iradiasi sinar gamma berpengaruh nyata terhadap kadar klorofil pada pengamatan vegetatif dan generatif. Keragaman genetik setiap tanaman berbeda antara satu dengan yang lainnya bahkan dalam satu perlakuan, keragaman tanaman belum bersifat permanen sehingga dilakukan seleksi dan diperoleh pada perlakuan D1 terdapat 3 tanaman terseleksi, perlakuan D2 terdapat 1 tanaman terseleksi, perlakuan D3 terdapat 4 tanaman terseleksi sedangkan pada perlakuan D4 terdapat 2 tanaman terseleksi.

English Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of main staple food for the Indonesian people. The need of food; Rice increasing in every year due to the increase in the population of Indonesia at 1:49% growth rate per year, moreover the change of consumption patterns from non-rice to the rice, also affecting the increased in demand for rice anually, therefore rice crop production should be increased. Increasing productivity can be achieved by a cross, induction of mutation, somaclonal variation, selection in vitro and other methods. The use of nuclear energy (gamma ray irradiation) as mutation induction can be used to increase the variance and phenotype allowing breeders selecting breeding in accordance with the desired objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic changes upland rice plants irradiated by gamma ray with dose of 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy and 250 Gy. The hypothesis is through gamma ray irradiation will occur upland rice plant phenotypic changes that have been irradiated gamma rays. The research was conducted from May 2013 to October 2013, irradiation with gamma rays was conducted at the Pusat Aplikasi Isotop dan radiasi, BATAN, Pasar Jum’at, Jakarta. Seeding iradiation seed was conducted in the Lab. Biotech UB Faculty of Agriculture, acclimatization of seed was conducted in a greenhouse of Balai Besar Pelatihan Pertanian (BBPP) and selection of the first mutant (M1) conducted at the experimental field of BBPP, Ketindan, Lawang, Malang, East Java. The materials that used were of upland rice seed cultivars Wangkariri (color red rice) with a water content of 11.8%, manure, urea, KCl and SP-36. The tools that used were irradiators Gamma Chamber 4000 A (source Co60), hoes, tugal, chlorophyll meter (Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter), meter, analytical scales, oven, wood / poles, camera and stationery. Seed of upland rice Wangkariri cultivars was irradiated with gamma rays at five dose level, ie 0 (D0), 100 (D1), 150 (D2), 200 (D3) and 250 (D4) Gy. Dose 0 (D0) was used as controls. Each dose irradiation using 100 plants (replicates). Methods of observations made by the Single Plant method, observations made on each of 100 plants per dose. observations made on whole plants (100 plants per dose irradiation) with the observation variables like plant height, flag leaf area, chlorophyll content, the number of productive tillers, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, grain percentage and yield per clumps. To see the stability of the mutants, the population of each mutant compared with the wild-type and the parent population, further analysis of plant diversity by using softwere Microsoft Excel. Based on the research results obtained that there was a change in the phenotypic of upland rice plants that irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0 Gy (D0), 100 Gy (D1), 150 Gy (D2), 200 Gy (D3) and 250 Gy (D4). Phenotypic changes occur as an increase in plant height, increasing the number of productive tillers, panicle elongation, leaf area increase, the increase in weight of grain per clumps, increase in the number of grains per panicle and increased levels of chlorophyll content. Based on observations of the average height of the plant phenotypic characters can be seen that the highest plant derived from a dose of 200 Gy, whereas the number of productive tillers characters possess the same number of tillers at all dose irradiation, the highest panicle length character at a dose of 100 Gy, while the highest leaf area karkter derived of a dose of 250 Gy, observations character highest percentage of grains derived from the control treatment, and the highest crop yields are at a dose of 100 Gy and generative character of the highest levels of chlorophyll content observations derived from a dose of 200 Gy. Based on the diversity of plants, crops genetic diversity gain gamma irradiation treatment increasing compared with control plants, it is clear that genetic factors crops caused by gamma-ray irradiation is more dominant than environmental factors affecting plant. On plant height, all treatments have broad range of criteria when compared with 2 standard deviations (2SD) of variance, where the characters have opportunity in the genetic improvement of plants and based on the analysis of a variety of plant height that gamma ray irradiation treatment was highly significant against high character. Character number of productive tillers, have diversity in the narrow criteria in treatment D1, D2 and D3 while the broad criteria in D4, while based on the analysis of variance gamma ray treatment iradisi highly significant on the character of the number of productive tillers. Observations on panicle length character also performed analysis of variance, based on the value of the variance of all treatment plants have broad variety of criteria, except for the treatment of D2 has a narrow variance criteria, based on the analysis of variance character panicle length gives results that gamma ray irradiation treatment highly significant in panicle length character. Different from character panicle length, in characters leaf area has broad diversity criteria in all treatments, while based on variance analysis concluded that the gamma-ray irradiation treatment highly significant. Observations on the character of the crop is divided into three main panicle, tillers and total, based on the criteria of variance of main panicles all treatments included in the narrow criteria, whereas panicle tillers in all treatments included in the narrow criteria and panicle total of all treatments included in the narrow criteria. Based on the analysis of the total crop variance can be seen that the treatment iraidasi not significant gamma rays which all equal treatment in the character of the crop. Based on the measurement of the variance in plant chlorophyl content character can be seen that both observations (vegetative and generative) include to broad criteria, based on the analysis of variance on the two observations provide results that gamma ray irradiation treatment significantly affected chlorophyll content in vegetative and generative. The genetic diversity of each plant is different from one to another even in a single treatment, plant variance is not permanent, so obtained on treatment selection and there are 3 plants selected D1, D2 treatment plants there is one selected crop, D3 treatment there are 4 plants selected whereas on treatment D4 there are two plants selected.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/172/051503027
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Kustati
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130152
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