BKG

Afandi, SutantoWahyu (2014) Penampilan Tujuh Genotip Padi (Oryza Sativa L.) Hibrida Japonica Pada 2 Musim Tanam. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Kebutuhan beras nasional pada tahun 2015 diproyeksikan sebesar 70 juta ton sehingga pemerintah harus berupaya untuk meningkatkan produksi beras nasional untuk memenuhi angka tersebut. Peningkatan produksi padi dapat dilakukan dengan berbagai cara seperti ekstensifikasi dan intensifikasi. Intensifikasi meliputi pengoptimalan irigasi, pengolahan tanah, pemupukan dan pemilihan benih unggul. Pemilihan benih unggul salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan benih padi hibrida. Padi hibrida adalah produk persilangan antara dua tetua padi yang berbeda secara genetik. Apabila tetua-tetua diseleksi secara tepat, maka hibrida turunannya akan memiliki vigor dan daya hasil yang lebih tinggi daripada kedua tetua tersebut. Galur padi hibrida Japonica merupakan galur introduksi dari Jepang, yang resisten terhadap suhu rendah yang umumnya di daerah sub tropis. Indonesia memiliki musim yang terbagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu kemarau dan hujan. Musim hujan umumnya dicirikan oleh terjadinya penurunan rata-rata suhu udara harian, lamanya penyinaran rnatahari dan radiasi surya, tingginya curah hujan dan tingkat keawanan (mendung). Sebaliknya musim kemarau dicirikan oleh meningkatnya suhu udara rata-rata harian, radiasi surya, lamanya penyinaran, dan menurunnya kelembaban udara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui penampilan tujuh genotip padi hibrida Japonica pada dua musim tanam. Hipotesis yang diajukan ialah (1) terdapat perbedaan penampilan genotip padi hibrida Japonica pada dua musim tanam, (2) terdapat perbedaan penampilan antar tujuh genotip padi hibrida Japonica dan (3) terdapat interaksi antara genotip x musim padi hibrida Japonica pada dua musim tanam. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Desember 2012 - September 2013, dilahan pertanian yang berlokasi di Desa Sekarpuro, Kecamatan Pakis, Kabupaten Malang. Analisis gabungan penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Tersarang, dalam setiap musim tanam menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) yang terdiri dari tujuh genotip padi (enam galur padi hibrida Japonica dan satu varietas pembanding) dengan 3 ulangan. Sebagai perlakuan adalah enam galur padi hibrida Japonica yaitu Bio-Jap 1, Bio-Jap 2, Bio-Jap 3, Bio-Jap 4, Bio-Jap 5, Bio-Jap 6 dan Taiken sebagai varietas pembanding. Pupuk yang digunakan ialah ialah urea, SP36 dan KCL. Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi karakter kualitatif terhadap warna tepi daun, warna pelepah daun, warna lidah daun, warna leher daun, warna telinga daun, warna pangkal batang, warna stigma (kepala putik), bentuk gabah, warna ujung gabah dan karakter kuantitatif yang terdiri dari umur berbunga (hst), tinggi tanaman (cm), panjang daun bendera (cm), lebar daun bendera (cm), jumlah anakan, umur panen (hst), panjang malai (cm), jumlah gabah per malai, persentase gabah bernas, bobot gabah per petak dan bobot 1000 butir gabah (g). Analisa Varian gabungan untuk mengetahui perbedaan penampilan varian genotip. Analisis data kuantitatif yang digunakan ialah uji F, Apabila dalam analisis ragam terdapat berbeda nyata, maka dilakukan uji Beda Nyata Jujur (BNJ) dengan taraf 5 %. Hasil penelitian diperoleh penampilan berbeda diantara tujuh genotip padi hibrida Japonica pada dua musim tanam ditunjukkan pada karakter panjang daun bendera, jumah anakan, panjang malai, bobot gabah per petak dan persentase gabah bernas. Tujuh genotip padi hibrida Japonica menunjukkan perbedaan karakter kualitatif pada warna tepi daun, warna pelepah daun, warna leher daun, warna telinga daun, warna pangkal batang, warna stigma, warna ujung gabah dan karakter kuantitatif pada karakter tinggi tanaman, umur berbunga, lebar daun bendera, umur panen, jumlah gabah per malai dan bobot 1000 butir. Musim tanam menunjukkan perbedaan penampilan pada karakter umur berbunga, lebar daun bendera, umur panen, jumlah gabah per malai dan bobot 1000 butir.

English Abstract

National rice demand in 2015 was raised 70 million tons, government should be attempt to increase national rice production to raise it. The increase of rice production can be done in various ways such as expansion and intensification. Intensification consist of optimization on irrigation, tillage, fertilizer and improved seed selection. One way to select the superior seed was using hybrid seeds Hybrid rice is the product of a cross between two parental rice genetically distinct. If the elders are selected properly, then the derivatives will have a hybrid vigor and a higher yield than the other two parental. Japonica hybrid rice was the introduction strain from japan, which are resistant with low temperatures and generally in the sub-tropical regions. Indonesia has a season which is divided into two parts, the dry and wet season. The rainy season was generally characterized by a decrease in average daily air temperature, duration of sun irradiation and solar radiation, high rainfall and cloudy levels. Conversely dry season was characterized by rising temperatures average daily solar radiation, duration of exposure, and decreasing humidity. This purpose of this research was to determine the performances of the seven genotypes of Japonica hybrid rice in 2 seasons. The proposed hypothesis is that (1) there are differences in the performances of Japonica hybrid rice genotypes in two cropping seasons, (2) there is a difference between the performances of seven Japonica hybrid rice genotypes and (3) there is an interaction between genotype x season Japonica hybrid rice in two cropping seasons. This research was conducted in December 2012 - September 2013, on the farm located in the village of Sekarpuro, Pakis, Malang. This research combined analysis used a nested design, while in each growing season used a Randomized Block Design (RBD), which consists of seven genotypes of rice (six lines of Japonica hybrid rice varieties and one control) with 3 replications. As the treatment there was six hybrid Japonica rice lines consist of Bio-Jap 1, Bio-2 Jap, Jap Bio-3, Bio-Jap 4, Bio-Jap 5, Bio-Jap 6 and Taiken as a comparison. Fertilizer that used were urea, SP36 and KCL. Observations were conducted on the qualitative character of the margin leaf color, midrib leaf color, aloe leaf color, neck leaf color, ear leaf color, stem color, stigma color, grain color, grain color end of the quantitative characters flowering time, plant height, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, the number of tillers, harvesting time, panicle length, the number of grains per panicle, the percentage pithy grain, weight of grain per plot and weight of 1000 grains. Variant Analysis combined to determine differences in performances of the variant genotype. Analysis of quantitative data that used was F test, If the analysis of variance gives real different, then tested with Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) at 5% level. The result showed a different performance of the seven genotypes of Japonica hybrid rice in two seasons that shown in any character flag leaf length, the sheer number of tillers, panicle length, grain weight per plot and the percentage of grain pithy. Seven Japonica hybrid rice genotypes shown significant different in qualitative character on leaf color, midrib leaf color, neck leaf color, ear leaf color, stem color, stigma color, grain color and in quantitative characters on plant height, flowering time, flag leaf width, harvesting time, number of grains per panicle and 1000 grain weight. in growing season showed differences performances of the character of flowering time, flag leaf width, harvesting time, the number of grains per panicle and 1000 grain weight.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2014/99/051402555
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130068
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