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Prasetya, MuhammadHanafiEka (2014) Pengaruh Macam dan Kombinasi Bahan Organik terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana B.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Stevia ialah tanaman herba yang memiliki daya regenerasi yang kuat sehingga tahan pemangkasan. Tanaman stevia sangat potensial dikembangkan sebagai gula (pemanis) alami pendamping gula tebu dan pengganti gula sintetis. Tanaman stevia bermanfaat sebagai pemanis alami untuk makanan dan minuman. Tanaman stevia juga bermanfaat membantu program diet, mengatur tekanan darah bagi penderita diabetes dan membantu menjaga keindahan kulit. Tanaman stevia dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pemanis alami, karena mengandung 3 jenis glikosida yaitu steviosida , rebausida dan dulkosida. Rasa manis pada stevia disebabkan dua komponen yaitu steviosida (3 - 10 % berat kering daun) dan rebaudiosida (1 - 3 % berat kering daun) yang dapat menaikkan 300 kali manisnya sukrosa. Penggunaan bahan organik dalam jangka panjang dapat meningkatkan kesuburan tanah dan keseimbangan mikroorganisme dalam tanah. Bahan organik ialah bahan yang berasal dari sisa-sisa makhluk hidup yang bisa dijadikan sebagai pupuk seperti pupuk kandang, pupuk hijau dan kompos baik yang berupa padatan maupun cairan (Setyorini, 2005). Bahan organik yang mudah digunakan, murah dan mengandung unsur hara yang dibutuhkan tanaman seperti tanaman Crotalaria juncea , Tanaman Tithonia diversifolia dan kompos kotoran sapi. Tanaman Crotalaria juncea di samping produksi biomasanya tinggi juga mempunyai kandungan N tinggi yaitu produksi bioma s sa sebesar 16,5 ton/ha dan kandungan N sebesar 3,01 % berat kering (Anonymous, 2011). Tanaman Tithonia diversifolia sebagai sumber hara, mengandung 3,5 % N, 0,37 % P dan 4,10 % K (Jama, et al., 2000). Kompos kotoran sapi mengandung bahan organik sebesar 16 %, 0,3 % N, 0,2 % K 2 O dan 0,2 % P 2 O 5 (Lingga, 1991). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh kombinasi bahan organik yang ideal bagi pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman stevia ( Stevia rebaudiana B). Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah kombinasi tanah + 12,3 t ha-1 kompos kotoran sapi mampu mengoptimalkan tinggi tanaman stevia, kombinasi tanah + 6,150 t ha-1 kompos kotoran sapi dan 2,212 t ha-1 Tithonia diversifolia meningkatkan jumlah daun dan hasil tanaman stevia, pemberian bahan organik dan kombinasinya mampu mengurangi kebutuhan pupuk anorganik. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Desember 2012 sampai Januari 2013 di rumah kaca Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Malang. Alat yang digunakan ialah polybag ukuran 40cm X 40cm, cangkul, mistar, timbangan analitik, roll meter, kertas milimeter, kamera digital, hand refraktometer dan sprayer. Bahan yang digunakan ialah bibit stek tanaman stevia, Urea (46% N), SP 36 (36% P 2 O 5 ), KCl (K 2 O), kompos kotoran sapi, paitan ( Tithonia diversifolia ) dan orok-orok ( Crotalaria juncea. ). Penelitian ini dirancang menggunakan Rancang Acak Kelompok (RAK) yang terdiri dari 8 perlakuan dan diulang sebanyak 3 kali. Maka akan didapatkan 24 plot tanaman. Dengan satu plot 2 tanaman dengan 1 tanaman dalam tiap polybag maka akan didapatkan 48 tanaman. Perlakuan meliputi A. Tanah + Kontrol (Urea 0,228 t ha-1, SP36 0,146 t ha-1, KCl 0,362 t ha-1 ), B. Tanah + 12,3 t ha-1Kompos kotoran sapi, C. Tanah + 4,423 t ha-1 T.diversifolia, D. Tanah + 4,689 t ha-1 C. juncea, E. tanah + 6,150 t ha-1 Kompos kotoran sapi + 2,212 t ha-1 T.diversifolia, F. Tanah + 6,150 t ha-1 Kompos kotoran sapi + 2,344 t ha-1 C. juncea , G. Tanah + 3,075 t ha-1 Kompos kotoran sapi + 3,317 t ha-1 T.diversifolia, H. Tanah + 3,075 t ha-1 Kompos kotoran sapi + 3,517 t ha-1 C. juncea . Pengamatan dilakukan tanpa merusak tanaman ( non destructive ) yang dilakukan pada masa vegetatif tanaman yaitu pada umur 15 hst, 30 hst dan 45 hst. Adapun parameter pengamatan ialah tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun dan luas daun. Sedangkan pengamatan hasil dilakukan pada umur 60 hst. Sedangkan kriteria panen ialah jumlah daun, bobot segar tanaman, bobot kering tanaman dan kadar gula. Analisis data menggunakan uji ragam F pada taraf 5 % dan apabila terjadi perbedaan, maka dilakukan uji lanjutan dengan menggunakan uji BNT pada taraf 5 %. Hasil penelitian perlakuan B kombinasi tanah + 12,3 t ha-1 kompos kotoran sapi menunjukkan pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman stevia

English Abstract

Stevia is herbaceous which has a strong regeneration of cutting. Stevia is potentially developed as sugar cane complement and synthetic sugar substitution. Stevia is useful for natural sweetener in foods and beverages, diet program, diabetics, blood pressure control and complexion maintenance. Stevia is used as a natural sweetener, because it contains 3 types of glycosides such as stevioside , rebauside and dulcoside . The Sweetness of stevia is obtained from two components ; stevioside (3 - 10 % dry weight of leaves ) and rebaudioside (1 - 3 % dry weight of leaves) which can increase the sweetness of sucrose more than 300 times. Implementation of organic matters from long time ago can be used for fertilizing and maintaining the soil fertility so that we can expect the high plant production. Organic matter is material derived from the remains of living organisms which can be used as a fertilizer such as manure, green manure and compost either in the form of solid or liquid (Setyorini, 2005). Organic matters like Crotalaria juncea, Tithonia diversifolia and cow manure compost are easy to use, inexpensive and contain nutrients. Crotalaria juncea produces not only high biomass but also N content. The production is up to 16.5 tons ha-1 of biomass and 3,01% dry weight of N content (Anonymous, 2011). Tithonia diversifolia contains 3,5 % N , 0, 37 % P and 4.10 % K (Jama, et al., 2000). Cow manure compost contains 16 % organic matter, 0,3 % N, 0,2 % K 2 O and 0,2 % P 2 O 5 (Lingga, 1991). The purpose of this research was obtain the ideal combination of organic matter for growth and harvest of the stevia plant ( Stevia rebaudiana B ). The hypotheses were the combination of soil + 12.3 t ha-1cow manure compost was able to optimize stevia’s height, the combination of soil + 6.150 t ha-1 cow manure compost and 2.212 t ha-1 T ithonia diversifolia increased the number of leaves and yields of stevia, application of organic manures and their combinations were able to reduce the needs for anorganic fertilizers. This research was conducted from December 2012 until January 2013 at Brawijaya University green house, Malang. The tools used were polybag size 40cm x 40cm, hoe, ruler, analytical balance, roll meter, millimeter paper, digital camera, handrefractometer and sprayer. Materials used were stevia cuttings seeds, urea (46 % N), SP 36 (36 % P 2 O 5 ), KCl (K 2 O), cow manure compost, paitan ( Tithonia diversifolia ) and orok-orok ( Crotalaria juncea ). This research design was Randomized Block Design (RBD ) consisting of 8 treatments with 3 times repetitions. The treatments were A (Soil + Control ( Urea 0,228 t ha-1, SP36 0,146 t ha-1, KCl 0,362 t ha-1)), B (Soil + 12.3 t ha-1 Cow manure compost), C (Soil + 4.423 t ha-1 T.diversifolia ), D (Soil + 4.689 t ha-1 C. juncea ), E (soil + 6.150 t ha-1Cow manure compost + 2.212 t ha-1 T.diversifolia ), F (Soil + 6.150 t ha-1 Cow manure compost + 2.344 t ha-1 C. juncea ), G (Soil + 3.075 t ha-1 Cow manure compost + 3.317 t ha-1 T.diversifolia ), H (Soil + 3.075 t ha-1 Cow manure compost + 3.517 t ha-1 C. juncea). The observations of the research were non-destructive parameters conducted during the vegetative phase of the plant at 15 dap, 30 dap and 45 dap. The observation parameters were plant height, leaf area and the number of leaves.The observations conducted at 60 dap. The number of leaves, fresh weight of plant, dry weight of plant, sugar content and leaf area were observed to collect the data. The data were analyzed using F test with 5 % level. If the treatment gives significant effect, LSD test with 5% level will be conducted. The results showed that treatment B, combination of soil + 12.3 t ha -1 cow manure compost gave the highest vegetative growth of the stevia plant than the other treatments. The treatment E, combination of soil + 6.15 t ha -1 cow manure compost + 2.212 t ha -1 T.diversifolia, gave the highest number of leaves and harvest than the other treatments including total plant fresh weight, total plant dry weight, leaf weight fresh, stem fresh weight, leaf area and sugar content.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2014/79/051402128
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130040
Text
SKRIPSI_M._HANAFI_EKA_P.pdf

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