BKG

Rachmadhani, NurWinda (2014) Pengaruh Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Anorganik terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Buncis Tegak (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Buncis (Phaseolus vulgaris. L) merupakan salah satu tanaman sayuran buah kelompok kacang-kacangan yang memiliki potensi cukup baik untuk dikembangkan karena memiliki kandungan gizi yang lengkap, sehingga banyak diminati oleh masyarakat. Berdasarkan data yang dihimpun oleh BPS (2013), total produksi tanaman buncis di Indonesia pada tahun 2010 sebesar 336.494 ton dan mengalami penurunan sebanyak 1.835 ton pada tahun 2011 menjadi 334.659 ton. Produktivitas buncis di Indonesia masih sangat rendah bila dibandingkan dengan rata-rata hasil panen tanaman yang baik yaitu sekitar 14 ton ha-1 (Cahyono, 2003). Salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan agar diperoleh hasil yang tinggi dengan kualitas yang baik ialah dengan mengusahakan agar tanaman mendapat unsur hara yang cukup selama pertumbuhannya, yaitu melalui pemupukan. Dalam aplikasi pupuk organik maupun pupuk anorganik dapat disertai dengan aplikasi biokultur kotoran ternak guna menekan penggunaan bahan agrokimia, mempertahankan kesuburan tanah, meningkatkan kualitas produksi dan meningkatkan pendapatan petani. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk memperoleh efisiensi pemakaian pupuk organik dan anorganik yang ditambahkan dengan biokultur guna mengoptimalkan pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman buncis tegak (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Hipotesis yang diajukan ialah aplikasi pupuk organik dan anorganik yang ditambahkan biokultur dengan dosis yang tepat mampu mengoptimalkan pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman buncis tegak (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Penelitian dilaksanakan di Dusun Sumberejo, Desa Sumberejo, Kecamatan Batu, Kota Batu pada bulan Mei hingga Juli 2013. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) non faktorial. Perlakuan yang diberikan ialah pemupukan yang terdiri dari 10 taraf, yaitu: (P1) tanpa pupuk, (P2) biokultur kotoran sapi, (P3) kompos kotoran sapi 5 ton ha-1, (P4) kompos kotoran sapi 5 ton ha-1 + biokultur kotoran sapi, (P5) kompos kotoran sapi 10 ton ha-1, (P6) kompos kotoran sapi 10 ton ha-1 + biokultur kotoran sapi, (P7) pupuk anorganik (50 kg N ha-1, 150 kg P2O5 ha-1 dan 50 kg K2O ha-1), (P8) pupuk anorganik (50 kg N ha-1, 150 kg P2O5 ha-1 dan 50 kg K2O ha-1) + biokultur kotoran sapi, (P9) pupuk anorganik (100 kg N ha-1, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1 dan 100 kg K2O ha-1) dan (P10) pupuk anorganik (100 kg N ha-1, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1 dan 100 kg K2O ha-1) + biokultur kotoran sapi. Pengamatan yang dilakukan meliputi pengamatan pertumbuhan dan pengamatan panen. Pengamatan pertumbuhan dilakukan secara non destruktif dengan mengamati 5 tanaman contoh untuk setiap perlakuan pada saat tanaman berumur 15 hst, 25 hst, 35 hst, 45 hst dan 55 hst. Peubah yang diamati dalam pengamatan pertumbuhan meliputi: tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, luas daun, indeks luas daun, jumlah cabang, luas kanopi, umur mulai berbunga, jumlah bunga per tanaman, umur mulai terbentuk polong, jumlah polong per tanaman, bobot segar brangkasan dan bobot kering brangkasan. Pengamatan panen dilakukan pada saat polong buncis menunjukkan kriteria panen, dimulai pada umur 51 hst hingga umur 64 hst. Peubah yang diamati dalam pengamatan panen meliputi: umur panen pertama, umur panen terakhir, frekuensi panen, persentase fruit set, persentase fruit drop, jumlah biji per polong, panjang polong, diameter polong, jumlah polong panen per tanaman, bobot segar polong panen per tanaman, bobot segar per polong, bobot kering per polong dan bobot segar polong panen per hektar. Data yang diperoleh dari hasil pengamatan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis ragam (uji F) pada taraf 5 %, dan apabila berbeda nyata maka dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT pada taraf 5 % untuk mengetahui perbedaan di antara perlakuan. Dari hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan pemberian pupuk anorganik berupa 100 kg N ha-1, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1 dan 100 kg K2O ha-1 (P9) menghasilkan bobot segar polong panen per hektar lebih tinggi daripada perlakuan lainnya (11,22 ton ha-1), tetapi tidak berbeda nyata dengan bobot segar polong panen per hektar yang dihasilkan dari perlakuan pemberian pupuk anorganik berupa 50 kg N ha-1, 150 kg P2O5 ha-1, 50 kg K2O ha-1 dan biokultur kotoran sapi (P8) dan 100 kg N ha-1, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1, 100 kg K2O ha-1 dan biokultur kotoran sapi (P10). Perlakuan tanpa pupuk (P1) dan perlakuan pemberian pupuk organik berupa kompos kotoran sapi 10 ton ha-1 (P5) menghasilkan bobot segar polong panen per hektar lebih rendah daripada perlakuan lainnya. Penambahan biokultur pada aplikasi pupuk organik maupun pupuk anorganik kurang memberikan pengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman buncis tegak.

English Abstract

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a vegetable that is included on the legume vegetable that has good potential to be developed as it has a complete nutrition content, so it get much demand from public. Based on the data collected by BPS (2013), the total production of common bean in Indonesia in 2010 was 336,494 tons and decreased as much as 1,835 tons in 2011 to be 334,659 tons. Productivity of common bean in Indonesia is still very low when compared with the average yields of good crop that is about 14 tons ha-1 (Cahyono, 2013). One attempt that can be done in order to obtain the high yields with good quality is by trying in order to the plant gets enough nutrients for their growth, that is by fertilization. In the application of organic fertilizer or anorganic fertilizer, that can e added with bioculture of manure to conserve the use of agrochemicals, maintaining soil fertility, improving the quality of production and increase farmers income. The purpose of this research is to obtain the efficiency of organic and anorganic fertilizers are added with bioculture to optimize plant growth and yield of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The hypothesis is that the application of organic and anorganic fertilizers are added with bioculture in correct dosage is able to optimize plant growth and yield of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The research was conducted in Sumberejo, Batu District, Batu City, on May to July 2013. The research was conducted by using a Randomized Block Design (RBD) non-factorial. The treatment that was given is fertilizing that is consisted of 10 levels, such as: (P1) without fertilizer, (P2) bioculture of cow manure, (P3) compost of cow manure 5 tons ha-1, (P4) compost of cow manure 5 tons ha- 1 + bioculture of cow manure, (P5) compost of cow manure 10 tons ha-1, (P6) compost of cow manure 10 tons ha-1 + bioculture of cow manure, (P7) anorganic fertilizer (50 kg N ha-1, 150 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 50 kg K2O ha-1), (P8) anorganic fertilizer (50 kg N ha-1, 150 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 50 kg K2O ha-1) + bioculture of cow manure, (P9) anorganic fertilizer (100 kg N ha-1, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 100 kg K2O ha-1) and (P10) anorganic fertilizer (100 kg N ha-1, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 100 kg K2O ha-1) + bioculture of cow manure. The Observations were done on the growth observation and yield observation. Growth observation was done non-destructively by observing 5 sample of plants for each treatment at the age of 15 dap, 25 dap, 35 dap, 45 dap and 55 dap. Parameters were observed in the growth observation include: plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, number of branches, canopy area, days to flowering, number of flowers per plant, days to pods forming, number of pods per plant, fresh weight of plant and dry weight of plant. Harvest observations was done when the pod of kidney beans showing the harvest criteria, starting at the age of 51 dap to 64 dap. Parameters were observed in the harvest observation include: age of first harvest, age of last harvest, harvest frequency, percentage of fruit set, percentage of fruit drop, number of seeds per pod, pod’s length, pod’s diameter, number of harvested pods per plant, fresh weight of harvested pods per plant, fresh weight per pod, dry weight per pod and fresh weight of harvested pods per hectare. Data obtained from the observations were analyzed using analysis of varian (F test) at the 5% level, and if significantly different then followed by the LSD test at the 5% level to determine differences among the treatments. The results showed that anorganic fertilizer treatment of 100 kg N ha-1, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 100 kg K2O ha-1 (P9) produced the fresh weight of harvested pods per hectare higher than the other treatments (11,22 ton ha-1), but not significantly different with the fresh weight of harvested pods per hectare are produced of anorganic fertilizer treatment of 50 kg N ha-1, 150 kg P2O5 ha-1, 50 kg K2O ha-1 and bioculture of cow manure ( P8 ) and 100 kg N ha-1 , 300 kg P2O5 ha-, 100 kg K2O ha–1 and bioculture of cow manure (P10). Treatment without fertilizer (P1) and organic fertilizer treatment of cow manure compost 10 tons ha-1 (P5) produced the fresh weight of harvested pods per hectare lower than the other treatments. The addition of bioculture on the application of organic fertilizer and anorganic fertilizer gives less influence on the growth and yield of kidney bean.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2014/52/051401481
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130006
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