BKG

Sari, RizkyRatnaFatma (2015) Pengaruh Penggunaan Rhizobium dan Penambahan Mulsa Organik Jerami Padi Pada Tanaman Kedelai Hitam (Glycine max L. Merril) Var. Detam 1”. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Kedelai hitam (Glycine max (L) Merril) merupakan tanaman asli Asia tropis seperti Asia Tenggara. Kedelai ini sudah sejak lama dibudidayakan oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Kedelai termasuk sumber gizi yang baik karena proteinnya tergolong tinggi, yaitu sekitar 38% (Astuti et al., 2011). Dengan menanam kedelai di sawah, dapat mengembalikan kesuburan tanah. Delapan tahun terakhir, kedelai hitam mulai naik daun. Kurang cepatnya perakitan dan pelepasan varietas kedelai hitam dibandingkan dengan kedelai berkulit biji kuning (kedelai kuning) menyebabkan terdesaknya areal tanam kedelai hitam. Berdasarkan data, Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), kebutuhan kedelai nasional Indonesia sekitar 2,2 ton per tiga bulan, padahal produksi kedelai nasional sekitar 779 ton per tiga bulan, sehingga ada kekurangan sekitar 1,4 juta ton dipenuhi dengan cara impor yang sebagian besar dari Amerika Serikat. Rendahnya produksi kedelai dalam negeri disebabkan, antara lain, petani memilih menanam komoditas yang memiliki nilai ekonomis yang lebih tinggi, seperti padi. Hal ini salah satu dampak tingginya harga kedelai di Indonesia. Mulsa jerami padi merupakan bahan sisa dari tanaman padi yang berpotensi sebagai mulsa yang tersedia dalam jumlah melimpah sekitar 30 juta ton per tahun . Kelebihan dari penggunaan mulsa jerami padi yaitu, menurunkan suhu tanah, menekan erosi, menghambat pertumbuhan gulma dan menambah bahan organik karena mudah lapuk atau terdekomposisi setelah rentan waktu tertentu. Bakteri Rhizobium sp. merupakan salah satu jenis jasad mikro yang hidup bersimbiosis dengan tanaman leguminosa dan berfungsi menambat nitrogen secara hayati. Penelitian dilaksanakan di desa Kedungmaling, kecamatan Sooko, Kabupaten Mojokerto yang dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli 2013 hingga Oktober 2013. Peralatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini diantaranya cangkul, tugal, meteran, timbangan analaitik, penggaris, kamera. Bahan yang digunakan yaitu kedelai hitam varietas Detam 1, jerami padi dan Rhizobium. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) yang terdiri dari 6 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Perlakuan tersebut terdiri dari P1=kontrol, P2=Mulsa jerami padi, P3= Rhizobium dengan dosis 5 g kg-1 benih kedelai, P4=Rhizobium dengan dosis 3 gr kg-1 benih kedelai, P5= Mulsa jerami padi dan Rhizobium dengan dosis 5 g kg-1 benih kedelai dan P6= Mulsa jerami padi dan Rhizobium dengan dosis 3 g kg-1 benih kedelai. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengamatan pertumbuhan secara destruktif dan non destruktif. Sedangkan Pengamatan panen dilakukan pada saat tanaman umur 105 hst. Data pengamatan yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis ragam (uji F) pada taraf 5%. Bila hasil pengujian diperoleh perbedaaan yang nyata maka dilanjutkan dengan uji perbandingan antar perlakuan dengan menggunakan Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT) pada taraf 5 %. Dari hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada perlakuan P5 (Rhizobium dengan dosis 5 g kg-1 benih kedelai dan jerami padi) mampu meningkatkan hasil tanaman kedelai hitam varietas Detam 1. Peningkatan hasil pada tanaman kedelai hitam varietas Detam 1 pada perlakuan P5 (Rhizobium dengan dosis 5 g kg-1 benih kedelai dan jerami padi) mencapai 27,38%. Sedangkan perlakuan yang menunjukkan hasil terendah dalam penelitian ini ialah pada perlakuan P1 (kontrol).

English Abstract

Black soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) is the native plant of tropical Asia such as Southeast Asia. This plant has been cultivated by the Indonesian people since a long time. Soybean is a good source of nutrient that has high protein content, 38% (Astuti et al., 2011). Planting soybean in the rice field could restore the soil fertility. For the last eight years, the demand of black soybeans has increased. Less rapid assembly and release of the black soybeans varieties in comparison with yellow soybeans have reduced the planting area of black soybean. Based on the data of the Central Bureau of Statistics, the national demand of soybean in Indonesia is about 2.2 tons per quarter, whereas in fact the national soybean production is about 779 tons per quarter, so there is a shortage for about 1.4 million tons that can be met through imports, which is mostly derived from the United States. However, lower domestic production of the soybean is due to the farmers choose to grow a commodity that has higher economic value, such as rice. It is one of the effects of high price of soybean in Indonesia. Rice straw mulch is a residue of rice plants, which is potential to be used as mulch and available in abundance for about 30 million tons per year. The advantages of using rice straw mulch include decreasing temperature of the soil, diminishing erosion, inhibiting the growth of weeds and increasing the organic matter as it is easily weathered or decomposed at a definite time. Rhizobium sp. is one of the microorganisms that live in symbiosis with legume plants and attach the nitrogen biologically. The research was conducted at Kedungmaling village, Sooko subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency from July 2013 to October 2013. The tools used in this study include hoe, dibble, meters, analytic scales, ruler, and camera. Materials of the research include black soybean of Detam 1 variety, rice straw and Rhizobium. This research applied the Randomized Block Design (RBD) that consisted of 6 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment consisted of P1 = control, rice straw mulch P2 = rice straw mulch, P3 = Rhizobium by a dose of 5 g kg-1 soybean seed, P4 = Rhizobium by a dose of 3 g kg-1 soybean seed, P5 = rice straw mulch and Rhizobium by a dose of 5 g kg-1 soybean seed, and P6 = rice straw mulch and Rhizobium by a dose of 3 g kg-1 soybean seed. In this research, observation on growth has been done destructively and non-destructively. Meanwhile, observation on harvest has been done at the age of 105 dap (days after planting). The obtainable data of the observation was analyzed using the analysis of variance (F test) at the level of 5%. If any significant difference was obtained as a result of the test, it would be followed by a comparative test among treatments using the Least Significant Difference (LSD) at the level of 5%. Results of the research showed that the treatment of P5 (Rhizobium by a dose of 5 g kg-1 soybean seed and rice straw) was able to increase the yield of black soybeans of Detam 1 variety. The increasing yield of black soybeans of Detam 1 variety under the treatment of P5 (Rhizobium by a dose of 5 g kg-1 soybean seed and rice straw) has reached 27.38%. However, the treatment of P1 (control) has shown the lowest yield.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2014/514/051500663
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130001
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