BKG

Andini, IrmaliaMirza (2014) Pertumbuhan dan Kadar Kurkumin Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorriza Robx.) pada Ketersediaan Unsur Hara Mikro (Cu, Mo) secara In Vitro. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Robx.) ialah tanaman asli Indonesia yang mempunyai potensial untuk dikembangkan dan memiliki banyak manfaat sebagai bahan obat. Rimpang temulawak mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder yaitu zat kuning kurkuminoid, minyak atsiri, pati, protein, lemak, selulosa, dan mineral yang berkhasiat obat digunakan untuk mengatasi kelainan pada hati/lever, kantong empedu serta pankreas. Orientasi budidaya tanaman temulawak tidak hanya ditujukan pada produktivitas biomas, tetapi juga tingginya mutu bahan aktif yang terkandung di dalam temulawak. Akan tetapi kendalanya adalah masih banyak temulawak yang memiliki kandungan kurkuminoid rendah. Keberhasilan sintesa metabolit sekunder dipengaruhi oleh salah satu faktor yaitu ketersediaan unsur hara. Unsur hara mikro yang kebutuhannya sedikit tetapi dapat mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan kualitas suatu tanaman. Cu dibutuhkan dalam proses fotosintesis, respirasi, konversi senyawa nitrogen, transportasi karbohidrat dan juga mengatur proses pembentukan DNA (Podlesna, 1996 dalam Al-Mayahi, 2014). Disamping itu, unsur Mo berfungsi sebagai kofaktor untuk enzim reduktase nitrat merupakan kunci penting untuk nutrisi tanaman. Kekurangan molibdenum mengurangi aktivitas nitrat reduktase, yang menghambat kemampuan tanaman untuk mensintesis protein (Lohry, 2007). Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mendapatkan hasil pertumbuhan dan kadar kurkumin temulawak maksimum dengan penambahan berbagai konsentrasi unsur hara mikro Cu atau Mo secara in vitro. Hipotesisnya adalah pemberian beberapa konsentrasi unsur Cu atau Mo memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda pada pertumbuhan dan hasil temulawak secara in vitro. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei sampai dengan Agustus 2014, di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Jurusan Budidaya Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Malang dan Laboratorium Tanaman Obat Materia Medika, Batu. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah Laminar Air Flow Cabinet (LAFC), autoclave, timbangan analitik, kompor listrik, botol kultur, pengaduk, gelas beker, pipet, pinset, cawan petri, scalpel, pH meter, panci, plastik penutup, karet gelang, air conditioner (AC), rak kultur, bunsen, kamera, color chart Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) dan Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) scanner Camag untuk analisis kurkumin. Bahan yang digunakan sebagai eksplan adalah tunas rimpang temulawak, media dasar Murashige dan Skoog (MS), sukrosa 30 g/l, agar 7 g/l, zat pengatur tumbuh sitokinin 6-Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP), akuades steril, spitritus dan untuk sterilisasi eksplan adalah alkohol 96 %, fungisida benlate, bayclin (NaClO) 5,25 % dan antibiotik streptomycin sulfate. Bahan yang digunakan untuk analisis kurkumin adalah metanol PA (Pro Analysis), kloroform 99 %, etanol 96 % dan asam asetat glasial 96 %. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 3 kali ulangan. Pelakuan terdiri dari dua macam unsur hara mikro Cu dalam bentuk CuSO4 . 5H2O dan Mo dalam bentuk Na2MoO4 . 2H2O pada empat taraf konsentrasi sehingga terdapat 8 perlakuan beserta perlakuan kontrol, yaitu : (1) T1 = perlakuan Cu 0 ppm; (2) T2 = perlakuan Cu 0,25 ppm; (3) T3 = perlakuan Cu 0,5 ppm; (4) T4 = perlakuan Cu 0,75 ppm; (5) T5 = perlakuan Mo 0 ppm; (6) T6 = perlakuan Mo 0,25 ppm; (7) T7 = perlakuan Mo 0,5 ppm; (8) T8 = perlakuan Mo 0,75 ppm. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan dua cara antara lain tanpa merusak tanaman (non destruktif) yaitu jumlah tunas, jumlah akar, jumlah daun, panjang tanaman, warna daun dan merusak tanaman (destruktif) yaitu bobot segar dan kering planlet dan kadar kurkumin. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis varian (Anova) pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Apabila terjadi perberdaan nyata antar perlakuan maka dilakukan uji lanjut dengan menggunakan uji BNT pada taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pemberian 0 – 0,75 ppm unsur Cu dan Mo berpengaruh nyata pada komponen pertumbuhan yang meliputi jumlah daun dan panjang tanaman, serta berpengaruh nyata pada komponen hasil yaitu kadar kurkumin. Peningkatan konsentrasi unsur Cu menurunkan pertumbuhan panjang tanaman sebesar 26,04 % dan jumlah daun sebesar 58,80 %, diikuti dengan penurunan kadar kurkumin temulawak 84,44 % dari perlakuan tanpa unsur Cu secara in vitro. Disamping itu, peningkatan konsentrasi unsur Mo menurunkan pertumbuhan jumlah daun sebesar 39,52 % tetapi meningkatkan pertumbuhan panjang tanaman sebesar 8,87 % dan kadar kurkumin temulawak sebesar 79,03 % dari perlakuan tanpa unsur Mo secara in vitro.

English Abstract

Temulawak (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Robx.) is a native Indonesian plant that has the potential to be developed and has many benefits as a medicine. Temulawak rhizome contains secondary metabolites that are substances yellow curcuminoids, volatile oil, starch, protein, fat, cellulose, and minerals. Temulawak rhizomes are efficacious used to treat disorders of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. It also can increase appetite, lowering blood cholesterol levels, and improve the immunity system of the body. Orientation temulawak cultivation is not only aimed at biomass productivity, but also the high quality of the active ingredient contained in temulawak. But the problem is still a lot of temulawak that has a low content of curcuminoids. The success of the synthesis of secondary metabolites is affected by one of the factors, that is the availability of nutrients. Micro-nutrients require in smaller amounts but can also affect the growth and quality of crops. Cu is needed in the process of photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen compounds conversion, carbohydrate transport and also regulate the formation of DNA (Podlesna, 1996 in Al-Mayahi, 2014). In addition, Mo element serves as a cofactor for the enzyme nitrate reductase which is an important key for plant nutrition. Deficiency of molybdenum reduces nitrate reductase activity, which inhibits the plants ability to synthesize protein (Lohry, 2007). The purposes of this research is to obtain the maximum results of temulawak growth and curcumin content with the addition of various concentrations of micronutrients Cu or Mo in vitro. The hypothesis is application of some concentrations of Cu or Mo have different affects on temulawak growth and yield in vitro. Research was conducted in March through August 2014, in the Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Department of Agriculture, Brawijaya University of Malang and Materia Medika Laboratory, Batu. The tools used in the experiments are Laminar Air Flow Cabinet (LAFC), autoclave, analytical scales, electric stove, culture bottles, stirrer, glass beaker, pipettes, tweezers, petri dish, scalpel, pH meter, pot, plastic coverings, rubber bands, air conditioner (AC), rack culture, spiritus lights, camera, color chart Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) scanner Camag. The materials used are rhizome of temulawak, Murashige and Skoog media (MS), sucrose 30 g / l, gelatin 7 g / l, 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), sterile distilled water, spitritus, alcohol 96 %, fungicide Benlate, Bayclin (NaClO) 5,25 %, streptomycin sulfate, methanol PA, chloroform 99 %, ethanol 96% dan acetate glacial acid 96 %. This research used a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatment consists of two kinds of micro-nutrients Cu in the form of CuSO4.5H2O and Mo in the form of Na2MoO4. 2H2O at four concentration level so that there were 8 treatments along with the control treatment, which is : (1) T1 = 0 ppm Cu treatment; (2) T2 = 0,25 ppm Cu treatment; (3) T3 = 0,5 ppm Cu treatment; (4) T4 = 0,75 ppm Cu treatment; (5) T5 = 0 ppm Mo treatment; (6) T6 = 0,25 ppm Mo treatment; (7) T7 = 0,5 ppm Mo treatment; (8) T8 = 0,75 ppm Mo treatment. Observations were made in two ways, without damaging the plants (non-destructive) that is the number of shoot, the number of root, the number of leaves shoot lenght, leaf color and the damaging conducted to the plants (destructive) that is fresh and dry weight of planlet and the curcumin levels. The data obtained will be analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test will be performed on a level of 5%. If the result of the test shows significant difference, then will be continued with LSD (Least Significant Difference) test on a level of 5%. The research shows that the aplication 0 – 0,75 ppm of Cu and Mo influence directly to some growth component thus numbers of leaves, plant lenght, and influence results components thus curcumin content. Increase concentrations of Cu led to decrease the length of plant growth at 26,04 % and the number of leaves 58,80 %, followed by a decrease content of curcumin 84,44% compare to untreatment Cu. On the other hand those trend have different on Mo application. The concentrations of Mo led to decrease the number of leaves 39,52 % but increase the length of plant growth 8,87 % and content of curcumin 79.36% compare to untreatment Mo in in vitro medium.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2014/471/051408327
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/129954
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