BKG

Marsha, NikitaDwi (2014) Studi Potensi Crotalaria mucronata Desv. sebagai Pupuk Hijau. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Sebagian besar lahan pertanian di Indonesia adalah lahan kering dengan kandungan bahan organik tanah < 1%. Kandungan bahan organik tanah yang rendah salah satunya disebabkan oleh penggunaan pupuk anorganik secara berlebihan, tanpa diimbangi penggunaan pupuk organik. Indonesia adalah negara tropis yang memiliki kelimpahan sumber pupuk hijau. Crotalaria mucronata Desv. adalah salah satu tumbuhan yang memiliki potensi sebagai pupuk hijau. C. mucronata Desv. memiliki sifat-sifat yang menguntungkan sebagai sumber bahan organik, yaitu menghasilkan biomasa hijauan yang tinggi, serta mampu meningkatkan kandungan N total tanah karena memiliki bintil-bintil akar yang dapat bersimbiosis dengan bakteri Rhizobium sp. Selain itu, tanaman ini mampu tumbuh pada lahan marginal dan relatif toleran terhadap kekeringan. Salah satu kendala pengembangan tanaman C. mucronata Desv., yaitu rendahnya daya perkecambahan akibat dormansi fisik pada kulit benih. Untuk itu, dibutuhkan perlakuan untuk memacu daya perkecambahannya. Tujuan penelitian antara lain: 1) Untuk mempelajari perlakuan yang tepat untuk memacu daya perkecambahan benih tanaman C. mucronata Desv., 2) Untuk mempelajari pengaruh frekuensi dan volume pemberian air terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman C. mucronata Desv., 3) Untuk mempelajari potensi tanaman C. mucronata Desv. sebagai pupuk hijau. Hipotesis penelitian yaitu: 1) Benih C. mucronata Desv. membutuhkan perlakuan skarifikasi untuk memacu daya perkecambahannya, 2) Tanaman C. mucronata Desv. dapat tumbuh baik pada kondisi hingga 75% kadar air tersedia, 3) Penggunaan pupuk hijau C. mucronata Desv. dapat memperbaiki sifat kimia tanah. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Desa Pangarangan, Kecamatan Kota, Kabupaten Sumenep, pada bulan Oktober – Desember 2013. Penelitian terdiri atas 3 percobaan, Percobaan ke-1: Pengujian viabilitas benih dilakukan dengan metode rancangan acak lengkap (RAL), terdiri atas 15 perlakuan yang diulang sebanyak 3 kali, meliputi: V0 (tanpa perlakuan); V1 (skarifikasi secara mekanis dengan kertas amplas); V2 (skarifikasi+perendaman air biasa selama 1×24 jam); V3 (perendaman air biasa selama 3×24 jam); V4 (perendaman air biasa selama 5×24 jam); V5 (perendaman air dengan suhu awal 50° C selama 1×24 jam); V6 (perendaman air dengan suhu awal 80° C selama 1×24 jam); V7 (skarifikasi+perendaman air dengan suhu awal 50° C selama 1 jam); V8 (skarifikasi+perendaman air dengan suhu awal 80° C selama 1 jam); V9 (perendaman larutan KNO3 1% selama 1×24 jam); V10 (perendaman larutan KNO3 0,5% selama 2×24 jam); V11 (perendaman larutan KNO3 0,2% selama 2×24 jam); V12 (perendaman larutan H2SO4 1% selama 30 menit); V13 (perendaman larutan H2SO4 1% selama 30 menit+perendaman air biasa selama 1×24 jam) dan V14 (perendaman larutan H2SO4 1% selama 1×24 jam). Parameter pengamatan meliputi persentase daya tumbuh benih (DT), tinggi kecambah dan panjang akar. Percobaan ke-2: Pengaruh frekuensi dan volume pemberian air pada pertumbuhan C. mucronata Desv., menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) non-faktorial, yang diulang sebanyak 3 kali dengan rincian perlakuan: F1V1 (pemberian air setiap hari dengan volume 100% kadar air tersedia); F1V2 (pemberian air setiap hari dengan volume 75% kadar air tersedia); F1V3 (pemberian air setiap hari dengan volume 50% kadar air tersedia); F2V1 (pemberian air 2 hari sekali dengan volume 100% kadar air tersedia); F2V2 (pemberian air 2 hari sekali dengan volume 75% kadar air tersedia); F2V3 (pemberian air 2 hari sekali dengan volume 50% kadar air tersedia); F3V1 (pemberian air 3 hari sekali dengan volume 100% kadar air tersedia); F3V2 (pemberian air 3 hari sekali dengan volume 75% kadar air tersedia) dan F3V3 (pemberian air 3 hari sekali dengan volume 50% kadar air tersedia). Pengamatan dilakukan pada umur tanaman 2 – 7 MST, meliputi parameter tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun dan panjang akar. Percobaan ke-3: Pengaruh waktu dan lama pembenaman tanaman C. mucronata Desv. pada tanah, menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) non-faktorial, dengan rincian perlakuan: P1 (tanaman umur 3 MST + dibenamkan selama 2 minggu); P2 (tanaman umur 3 MST + dibenamkan selama 3 minggu); P3 (tanaman umur 4 MST + dibenamkan selama 2 minggu); P4 (tanaman umur 4 MST + dibenamkan selama 3 minggu); P5 (tanaman umur 5 MST + dibenamkan selama 2 minggu); P6 (tanaman umur 5 MST + dibenamkan selama 3 minggu) dan P7 (tanaman umur 6 MST + dibenamkan selama 3 minggu). Masing-masing kombinasi perlakuan diulang sebanyak tiga kali sehingga terdapat 21 satuan percobaan. Parameter yang dianalisis meliputi : pH, C-organik, N total, P tersedia, K dapat ditukar, bahan organik, KTK dan C/N rasio tanah. Analisis tanah awal dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel tanah sebelum penanaman, sedangkan analisis tanah setelah perlakuan dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel tanah pada akhir waktu pembenaman pada masing-masing perlakuan. Data pengamatan yang diperoleh dari masing-masing percobaan dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam (uji F) pada taraf 5%, dan apabila berbeda nyata maka dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT pada taraf 5% untuk mengetahui perbedaan di antara perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa benih tanaman C. mucronata Desv. membutuhkan perlakuan skarifikasi untuk meningkatkan permeabilitas kulit benihnya. Perlakuan skarifikasi secara mekanis dengan kertas amplas mampu meningkatkan daya tumbuh benih tanaman C. mucronata Desv. sebesar 321,37% dibanding tanpa perlakuan skarifikasi. Tanaman C. mucronata Desv. dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pupuk hijau karena mampu tumbuh pada lahan marginal dan relatif toleran terhadap kekeringan. Pemberian air dengan volume 75% kapasitas lapang dengan frekuensi tiga hari sekali lebih efisien dilakukan karena menghasilkan rata-rata tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun dan panjang akar tanaman yang tidak berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan lainnya. Penggunaan tanaman C. mucronata Desv. sebagai pupuk hijau dapat memperbaiki sifat kimia tanah. Pembenaman 10 ton ha-1 hijauan C. mucronata Desv. mampu meningkatkan nilai pH tanah sebesar 2,94% (masih dalam kriteria netral); C-organik sebesar 258% (dari sangat rendah menjadi rendah); N total sebesar 163% (meskipun masih dalam kriteria sangat rendah); P tersedia sebesar 1138% (dari sangat rendah menjadi sangat tinggi); K dapat ditukar sebesar 649% (dari sangat rendah menjadi sedang); bahan organik sebesar 252% dan KTK tanah sebesar 301% (meskipun masih dalam kriteria sangat rendah) dibanding tanah tanpa perlakuan.

English Abstract

Most of the agricultural land in Indonesia is dry land with soil organic matter content which is less than 1%. The low of soil organic matter content causing soil fertility decline. One of the reason caused by excessive use of inorganic fertilizers, without the use of a balanced organic fertilizer. Organic fertilizer can restore the lost of soil organic matter and improve the physical, chemical, and biological soil condition. Indonesia is one of tropical country that has abundance source of green manure. Crotalaria mucronata Desv. is one of the potential green manure plants. C. mucronata Desv. generally grow wild as weeds or as a ruderal plant. C. mucronata Desv. has advantages as a source of organic matter, which is growing rapidly, generating high forage biomass, as well as to increase the total N content in the soil because it has a root nodules that can make a symbiosis with Rhizobium sp. Additional contribution of organic matter through forage immersion would be a source of energy for growth of microorganisms in the soil. In addition, these plants can be grown on marginal land and relatively tolerant to drought. Among the difficulties in the development of C. mucronata Desv., plant are the low of seed viability due to physical dormancy in seed coat. Therefore, it require some seed treatments to stimulate the seed viability. The purpose of the research are: (1). To learn the proper treatment to stimulate C. mucronata Desv. seed viability (2). To study the influence of the frequency and volume of water suply on growth of C. mucronata Desv. plant, and (3). To study the potency of the C. mucronata Desv. plant as green manure. While the research hypotheses are: (1). C. mucronata Desv. seed require scarification treatment to stimulate their viability, (2). C. mucronata Desv. plants can grow well until 75% available water content capacity, and (3). The use of C. mucronata Desv. as green manure can improve the chemical soil condition. The research was conducted in Pangarangan Village, Sumenep regency, on October – December 2013. This study consisted of three experimental stage, among others: 1st. Seed viability testing, was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) consist of 15 treatment and repeated 3 times, include: V0 (no treatment); V1 (mechanical scarification with sand paper); V2 (scarification+immersion in cold water for 1×24 hours); V3 (immersion in cold water for 3×24 hours); V4 (immersion in cold water for 5×24 hours); V5 (immersion in water with initial temperature of 50° C for 1×24 hours); V6 (immersion in water with initial temperature of 80° C for 1×24 hours); V7 (scarification+immersion in water with initial temperature of 50° C for 1 hour); V8 (scarification+immersion in water with initial temperature of 80° C for 1 hour); V9 (immersion in KNO3 1% solution for 1×24 hours); V10 (immersion in KNO3 0,5% solution for 2×24 hours); V11 (immersion in KNO3 0,2% solution for 2×24 hours); V12 (immersion in H2SO4 1% solution for 30 minutes); V13 (immersion in H2SO4 1% solution for 30 minutes+immersion in cold water for 1×24 hours) and V14 (immersion in H2SO4 1% solution for 1×24 hours). Observations made at the time the seeds begin to germinate, seed viability parameters include the observations that indicated by the percentage of seed germination, shoot length, and root length. 2nd. Influence of the frequency and volume of the water supply on the growth of C. mucronata Desv., using a non-factorial randomized block design (RBD), consist of 9 treatments repeated 3 times with details of treatment: F1V1 (every day water giving in 100% available water content), F1V2 (every day water giving in 75% available water content), F1V3 (every day water giving in 50% available water content), F2V1 (interval of 2 days water giving in 100% available water content); F2V2 (interval of 2 days water giving in 75% available water content), F2V3 (interval of 2 days water giving in 50% available water content), F3V1 (interval of 3 days water giving in 100% available water content); F3V2 (interval of 3 days water giving in 75% available water content), and F3V3 (interval of 3 days water giving in 50% available water content). Observations made at 2 – 7 weeks after planting plant, the obsevational parameters are plant height, number of leaves and root length. 3rd. Effect of time and long immersion of C. mucronata Desv. on the soil, using a non-factorial randomized block design (RBD), with treatment details: P1 (plant age 3 weeks + immersed for 2 weeks), P2 (plant age 3 weeks + immersed for 3 weeks), P3 (plant age 4 weeks + immersed for 2 weeks); P4 (plant age 4 weeks + immersed for 3 weeks); P5 (plant age 5 weeks + immersed for 2 weeks); P6 (plant age 5 weeks + immersed for 3 weeks), and P7 (plant age 6 weeks + immersed for 3 weeks). Each treatment combination was repeated three times so that there are 21 experimental units. The parameters analyzed include: pH, organic C, total N, available P, exchangeable K, organic matter, cation exchange capacity and soil C/N ratio. Initial soil analysis were done by taking samples of the soil before planting time, while the analysis of the soil after the treatment were done by taking a sample of soil at the end of the immersion time in each treatment. Observational data obtained from each experiment were analyzed using analysis of variance (F test) at 5% level, and if significantly different then followed by LSD test at 5% level to determine differences between the treatments. Based on the research results, the scarification treatment with sand paper on C. mucronata seeds increasing the seed germination percentage amounted to 321,37% compared to the untreated seeds. C. mucronata Desv can be used as green manure because it can grow on marginal land and relatively tolerant to drought. The treatment of 3 days of interval water giving on 75% available water content is more efficient because produce the average plant height, number of leaves and root length which were not significantly different from the other treatments. The use of C. mucronata Desv. as green manure can improve the chemical soil conditions. The immersion of 10 ton ha-1 of C. mucronata Desv. biomass, showed an increases of soil pH value by 2.94% (though still in neutral criteria); C-organic by 258% (from very low become low); total N by 163%, though still in the very low criteria (<0,1%); available P by 1138%, from very low become very high (>20 mg kg-1); exchangeable K by 649%, from very low to medium (0,4 – 0,5 me 100 g-1); organic materials by 252% and soil CEC by 301%, although still in the very low criteria (<5 me 100 g-1) compared to the untreated soil.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2014/141/051403463
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Hasbi
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/129592
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