BKG

Fatimah, Fila (2013) Efek Xenia Pada Persilangan Beberapa Genotipe Jagung (Zea Mays.L) Terhadap Karakter Biji Dan Tongkol Jagung. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Jagung Merupakan Tanaman Pangan Penting Kedua Setelah Padi. Jagung Menjadi Komoditas Strategis Dalam Pembangunan Pertanian Dan Perekonomian Indonesia. Perakitan Kultivar Unggul Yang Mempunyai Potensi Hasil Tinggi Dapat Dilakukan Dengan Beberapa Cara, Antara Lain Hibridisasi Atau Persilangan. Salah Satu Upaya Yang Dilakukan Adalah Mempelajari Efek Xenia. Xenia Merupakan Gejala Genetik Berupa Pengaruh Langsung Serbuk Sari (Pollen) Pada Fenotipe Biji Dan Buah Yang Dihasilkan Tetua Betina. Dengan Adanya Xenia , Ekspresi Gen Yang Dibawa Tetua Jantan Dapat Diekspresikan Pada Tetua Betina (Buah). Fenomena Ini Diduga Dapat Membantu Meramalkan Dan Menduga Daya Gabung Lebih Dini Pada Tetua Dalam Pembentukan Kultivar Hibrida. Penelitian Ini Bertujuan Untuk Mengevaluasi Efek Xenia (Pengaruh Tetua Jantan) Terhadap Karakter Biji Dan Tongkol Jagung Secara Kuantitatif Maupun Kualitatif. Penelitian Dilaksanakan Di Kebun Percobaan Jatikerto Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Pada Bulan Maret 2013-Juli 2013, Di Kecamatan Kromengan, Kabupaten Malang. Dengan Keadaan Geografis Lahan Percobaan Pada Ketinggian 303 Mdpl Dengan Suhu Udara Berkisar Antara 25-30 ºc Dengan Rh Berkisar Antara 70-90%. Bahan Yang Digunakan Dalam Penelitian Ini Adalah Pupuk Kandang, Pupuk Npk, Insektisida, Fungisida, Dan Benih Galur Jagung. Pada Penelitian Ini Tipe Biji Jagung Yang Digunakan Yaitu Tipe Biji Mutiara ( Flint ) Dan Tipe Biji Gigi Kuda ( Dent ). Alat Yang Digunakan Dalam Penelitian Ini Meliputi: Cangkul, Tugal, Gunting, Timbangan, Meteran, Penggaris, Kamera, Kain Warna Abu-Abu Dan Warna Biru, Kertas Label, Kertas Samson, Sprayer, Alat Tulis, Gunting, Staples. Data Kuantitatif Menggunakan Uji Membandingkan Antar Perlakuan Pada Beberapa Kombinasi Persilangan Selfing Dan Crossing Yaitu Uji T Independent Pada Taraf 5%, Sedangkan Data Kualitatif Menggunakan Pendekatan Statiska Deskriptif Dan Skoring. Penelitian Dilakukan Dengan Menanam 18 Genotipe Tanaman Jagung. Perlakuan Berupa 12 Genotipe Inbrida Sebagai Tetua Betina Dan 5 Genotipe Inbrida Dan 1 Varietas Komersial Sebagai Tetua Jantan. Pada Masing-Masing Genotipe Dilakukan Dua Perlakuan ( Selfing Dan Crossing ), Sehingga Didapatkan 82 Kombinasi Persilangan. Hasil Penelitian Ini Menunjukkan Xenia Muncul Pada Hasil Beberapa Kombinasi Persilangan Crossing Karakter Biji Dan Tongkol Baik Kuantitatif (Berat Tongkol, Dan Jumlah Biji Per Tongkol) Maupun Kualitatif (Warna Dan Bentuk Biji). Dari 6 Tetua Jantan Yang Diuji, Tetua Bisi Dan Tetua G10-19 Menunjukkan Hasil Yang Tinggi Pada Parameter Kuantitatif Sehingga Dapat Dipilih Sebagai Tetua Jantan Dalam Pembentukan Hibrida, Sedangkan Dari 12 Genotipe Betina Yang Diuji, Genotipe G33-31 Menunjukkan Hasil Yang Tinggi Pada Karakter Diameter Tongkol Dan Berat Tongkol Dengan Setiap Pasangan Tetua Jantan Sehingga Dapat Dipasangkan Dengan Semua Tetua Jantan. Xenia Nampak Pada Crossing Antara ♀ G10-1 (Kuning) ♂ Gu (Ungu) Yaitu 100 % Warna Berubah. Hasil Dari Beberapa Persilangan Crossing Menunjukkan Bahwa Karakter Bentuk Kernel Flint (Mutiara) Memberikan Ekspresi Gen Lebih Kuat Dibandingkan Dengan Bentuk Kernel Dent (Gigi Kuda), Tetapi Xenia Tidak Muncul Pada Karakter Lain Yaitu Warna Janggel, Dan Susunan Baris Biji.

English Abstract

Corn Is The Second Important Crop After Rice. It Becomes A Strategic Commodity In The Agricultural And Economic Development In Indonesia. Superior Cultivars Formation That Have High Yield Potential Can Be Done In Several Ways , Such As Hybridization. Hybridization Is An Effort To Increase The Genetic Variability And Obtain New Genotypes That Are Superior. One Of The Effort Was To Study About Xenia Effect. Xenia Is A Symptom Of A Genetic Form Of Direct Influence Pollen (Male Flower) On Seed Phenotypes That Be Resulted By Female Parents. But With Xenia, The Expression Of Genes Was Carried Male Parent Can Be Expressed In The Female Parent (Seed). This Phenomena Was Assumed To Help And Predict The Combining Ability Early To Get Male Parent In Hybrid Formation. The Purpose Of This Research Was Evaluating The Effect Of Xenia In Some Qualitative And Quantitative Characters Mainly In Maize Kernel And Cobs. This Research Was Conducted At Jatikerto Field Research Station Of Brawijaya University In March 2013 Until July 2013, In The Kromengan District, Malang Regency. The Geographical Situation Of Land Laid At An Altitude Of 303 Meters Above Sea Trials With Temperatures Ranging Between 25-30 ºc With Rh Ranging Between 70-90%. Materials Were Used In This Research Such As Manure, Npk Fertilizers, Insecticides, Fungicides, And Maize Line Seed. In This Research, The Type Of Maize Seed Were Used Are Pearls Seed Shape (Flint) And Horse Teeth Seed Shape (Dent). The Tools Were Used In This Research Include: Hoe, Drill, Scissors, Scales, Tape Measure, Ruler, Camera, Gray And Blue Fabric, Paper Label, Samson Paper, Sprayer, Stationery, Scissors, Staples. Quantitative Data Was Analysed With T Test That Comparing Between Two Treatments In Some Cross Combinations Selfing And Crossing With T Test Independent At 5% Level, While The Qualitative Was Analysed With Descriptive Statistic And Scoring. The 18 Genotypes Of Maize Was Planted In This Research. Treatment Consisted Of 12 Inbrid Lines As Female Parents And 5 Inbrid Lines And 1 Comercial Variety As Male Parents. On Each Genotype Was Conducted With Two Treatments (Selfing And Crossing), So There Were 84 Pollinate Combinations. Results Of This Research Showed That Xenia Appear On Several Cross Combinations On Seed And Cob Characters Both Quantitative (Cob Weight, And Number Of Seeds Per Ear ) And Qualitative (Color And Seed Shape). From 6 Males Parents Have Been Tested , Bisi And G10-19 Parents Showed High Results On Quantitative Parameters So It Can Be Chosen As The Male Parent In Hybrid Formation, While Twelve Females Genotypes Were Tested, Genotypes G33-31 Showed High Results On The Character Cob Diameter And Cob Weight With Each Pair Of Male Parent So G33-31 Can Be Paired With All The Male Parent. Xenia Appears In Crossing Between ♀ G 10-1 ( Yellow ) X ♂ G u (Purple ), The Colour Of Kernel Changed 100 %. Xenia Also Appeared In Shape Kernel,Flint Given Stronger Gene Expression Than Dent Shape Kernel But Xenia Did Not Appear On Any Other Qualitative Character Such As Corn Cob Color , And Row Formation Of Seed

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2013/286/051311020
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/129400
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