BKG

Fatimah, Laila Nur (2018) Persilangan Kedelai (Glycine Max L. Merrill.) Varietas Anjasmoro Dan Grobogan Dengan Galur Gm2 Dan Gm5 Toleran Alumunium (Al). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Kedelai (Glycine max L. Merrill.) menjadi salah satu komoditas pangan utama di Indonesia dan merupakan sumber protein nabati. Kendala pengembangan kedelai di lahan marginal antara lain adanya kemasaman tanah dan kejenuhan alumunium (Al) tinggi. Penanganan kemasaman tanah dan kejenuhan Al dapat dilakukan melalui pengapuran, namun aplikasi kapur pada tanah masam untuk budidaya kedelai memberikan pengaruh yang cepat hilang sehingga kurang ekonomis bagi petani. Alternatif yang dapat diterapkan adalah menanam varietas kedelai toleran, tetapi ketersediaannya saat ini masih terbatas. Upaya perakitan varietas kedelai toleran Al perlu dikembangkan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui keberhasilan persilangan antara galur Gm2 dan Gm5 yang mengandung gen toleran Al (gen MaMt2) dengan varietas Anjasmoro dan Grobogan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Desember 2017 hingga April 2018, bertempat rumah kawat Balai Besar Penelitian Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian (BB Biogen), Bogor. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 12 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Ulangan dilakukan berdasar waktu pelaksanaan persilangan yaitu U1 (08.00 – 11.00), U2 (11.00 – 14.00) dan U3 (14.00 – 17.00). Perlakuan terdiri dari empat persilangan buatan (Anjasmoro x Gm2, Anjasmoro x Gm5, Grobogan x Gm2, Grobogan x Gm5), empat selfing buatan dan empat selfing alami masing-masing tetua. Hasil menunjukkan tingkat keberhasilan persilangan buatan antara Anjasmoro x Gm2 memiliki persentase sebesar 56,67%, Anjasmoro x Gm5 80%, Grobogan x Gm2 60%, dan Grobogan x Gm5 80%. Kombinasi perlakuan selfing alami memiliki persentase keberhasilan lebih tinggi (93,33% - 96,67%) dibandingkan dengan selfing buatan (73,33% - 80%) maupun persilangan buatan (56,67% - 80%). Keberhasilan pembentukan polong Anjasmoro x Gm2, Anjasmoro x Gm5, Grobogan x Gm2, dan Grobogan x Gm5 secara berturut-turut adalah 59,05%; 42,59%; 53,77%; 28,97%. Keberhasilan pembentukan polong pada perlakuan selfing buatan dan selfing alami secara berturut-turut untuk Anjasmoro sebesar 48,15%; 57,04%; Grobogan sebesar 40,28%; 44,81%; Gm2 sebesar 54,17%; 60,74%; dan Gm5 41,60%; 48,52%. Jumlah biji per polong pada hasil persilangan buatan dan selfing buatan berkisar satu hingga dua biji, sedangkan pada selfing alami mampu terbentuk tiga maupun empat biji per polong. Ukuran polong dan biji hasil persilangan buatan cenderung mengikuti ukuran tetua betina namun menunjukkan rata-rata lebih kecil. Berdasarkan uji t, variabel panjang, lebar dan tebal biji hasil persilangan dibandingan dengan hasil selfing tetua betina menunjukkan hasil yang berbeda nyata.

English Abstract

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) is considered one of primary food in Indonesia as source of vegetable protein. However the cultivation area in marginal land has a soil acidity with constraints by high aluminum (Al) stress. Soybean farmers use lime to resolve soil acidity and Al stress, but the application of lime on acid soils for soybean cultivation gives a fast disappearing effect that is less economical for farmers. Alternative solutions to resolve Al stress on acid soil is growing tolerant varieties. At present, the availability of tolerant soybean varieties is limited, so breeding for tolerant soybean varieties to Al stress is needed. This research was conducted to find out the success of hibridization between Gm2 and Gm5 line containing Al tolerant gene (MaMt2 gene) with varieties Anjasmoro and Grobogan. This research was carried out in December 2017 to April 2018, located at screenhouse Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources R&D (ICABIOGRAD), Bogor. This research used block randomized design with 12 treatments and 3 replication. Replication was done by implementing a cross be composed U1 (08.00 – 11.00), U2 (11.00 – 14.00) and U3 (14.00 – 17.00). The treatment consists of four artificial crosses (Anjasmoro x Gm2, Anjasmoro x Gm5, Grobogan x Gm2, Grobogan x Gm5), four artificial selfing and four natural selfing for each parents. The success rate of artificial crosses between Anjasmoro x Gm2 had a percentage of 56.67%, Anjasmoro x Gm5 80%, Grobogan x Gm2 60%, and Grobogan x Gm5 80%. The combination of natural selfing treatment has a higher success rate (93.33% - 96.67%) compared to artificial selfing (73.33% - 80%) and artificial crosses (56.67% - 80%). The success of pods formation rate of Anjasmoro x Gm2, Anjasmoro x Gm5, Grobogan x Gm2, and Grobogan x Gm5 repectively 59.05%; 42.59%; 53.77%; 28.97%. The success of pod formation in natural selfing and hand selfing for Anjasmoro was 48.15%; 57.04%; Grobogan is 40.28%; 44.81%; Gm2 is 54.17%; 60.74%; and Gm5 41.60%; 48.52%. Number of seeds per pod in the artificial crosses and artificial selfing ranged from one to two seeds, whereas in natural selfing capable formed three or four seeds per pod. The size of the pods and seeds are the result of artificial crosses tend to follow size of female parents but showed the average smaller. Based on the t-test, variable seed length, seed width and seed thickness compared with the results of the seed results selfing female parent showed different results.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/657/051809992
Uncontrolled Keywords: Varietas toleran, Cekaman Al, Gm2, Gm5, Al stress, Gm2, Gm5, Tolerant varieties
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting > 631.52 Production of seeds, bulbs, tubers, new varieties > 631.523 Development of new varieties
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/12864
Text
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