BKG

Putri, R.A. Prita Sari (2018) Efektivitas Persilangan Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum Annuum L.) Rentan Dan Tahan Penyakit Busuk Batang Phytophthora (Phytophthora Capsici L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

digunakan adalah isolat P. capsici, hasil koleksi dari Dusun Torong, Desa Tawangsari, Kecamatan Pujon, Kabupaten Malang. Bahan lain, yaitu: kertas peram, handuk, TSP 10%, Bigest (GA3), cocopeat, cocochip, ajir, tali ajir, tali rafia, papan nama, alkohol 70%, kantong polinasi, label polinasi, pupuk AB-Mix, dan pestisida. ii Metode persilangan yang dilakukan dengan melakukan persilangan resiprok (bolak-balik) antara tetua tahan CM334, PR10.3.3.6 dan PR10.3.4.24 serta TB1.10.2.27, dan CJ19. Tetua bahan persilangan diwakili oleh 12 tanaman. Setiap kombinasi persilangan diwakili oleh 3 tanaman. Setiap tanaman dipolinasi sebanyak 10 kali. Penampisan ketahanan P.capsici dilakukan pada sampel bibit tanaman cabai dari 5 tetua dan generasi F1 dengan cara memberikan 5 ml inokulum atau sama dengan kerapatan 1 x 104 zoospora disetiap bibit tanaman (±30 HSS). Pengamatan persilangan dan skrining ketahanan diamati dengan cara metode tanaman tunggal lalu data dianalisis menggunakan uji-t taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu persilangan dan skrining ketahanan. Hasil persilangan menunjukkan bahwa persilangan dengan menggunakan TB1.10.2.27 dan CJ19 sebagai tetua betina menunjukkan rerata persentase tinggi yaitu 27,8% dan 18,9% sehingga tetua rentan lebih baik digunakan sebagai tetua betina persilangan. Persilangan dengan menggunakan tetua tahan PR10.3.3.6 dan PR10.3.4.24 sebagai tetua jantan menghasilkan jumlah benih tertinggi sebanyak 1224 biji dan 815 biji sehingga tetua tahan lebih baik digunakan sebagai tetua jantan persilangan. Pada generasi F1 persilangan yang memiliki potensi hasil buah (keberhasilan persilangan) dan hasil biji jumlah biji tertinggi adalah persilangan TB1.10.2.27 × PR10.3.4.24 dan TB1.10.2.27 × PR10.3.3.6. Hasil pengamatan skrining ketahanan menunjukkan bahwa tetua tahan PR10.3.4.24 sebagai tetua yang memiliki kriteria (ST) atau sangat tahan dan keparahan penyakit mutlak (0,00 ± 0,00) terhadap P.capsici jika dibandingkan dengan CM334 yang memiliki kejadian penyakit (AR) atau agak rentan dengan nilai keparahan penyakit sebesar 0,27 ± 0,43. TB1.10.2.27 dan CJ19 sebagai tetua rentan memiliki kriteria penyakit (SR) atau sangat rentan terhadap P.capsici. Namun kedua tetua rentan memiliki tingkat keparahan penyakit yang berbeda. TB1.10.2.27 memiliki tingkat keparahan penyakit sebesar 1,21 ± 1,05 dan CJ19 sebesar 3,26 ± 2,81 sehingga CJ19 merupakan tetua yang memiliki kerentanan yang tinggi terhadap P.capsici. F1 persilangan antara tetua rentan TB1.10.2.27 sebagai tetua betina dan tetua tahan PR10.3.4.24 sebagai tetua jantan merupakan persilangan yang efektif karena tidak memiliki pengaruh tetua betina dan memiliki sifat heterosis. Selain itu, persilangan tersebut mampu menghasilkan buah dan biji yang banyak. Berdasarkan hasil dan pembahasan disimpulkan bahwa strategi pemuliaan ketahanan tanaman cabai yaitu persilangan dengan menggunakan tetua rentan TB1.10.2.27 sebagai tetua betina dan tetua tahan PR10.3.4.24 sebagai tetua jantan karena mampu memperoleh biji dan buah dengan jumlah banyak, tidak memiliki pengaruh tetua betina dan mempunyai sifat heterosis terhadap ketahanan penyakit busuk batang Phytophthora. Selain itu, persilangan antara antara PR10.3.4.24 sebagai tetua jantan dan TB1.10.2.27 sebagai tetua betina adalah persilangan paling yang efektif dibandingkan dengan persilangan antara tetua rentan TB1.10.2.27 dan tetua tahan CM334. Sementara itu, PR10.3.4.24 adalah tetua tahan yang efektif dalam mengintrogesi ketahanan penyakit busuk batang Phytophthotora dibandingkan dengan tetua tahan CM334. Sedangkan CJ19 adalah tetua yang paling peka terhadap penyakit busuk batang Phytophthora.

English Abstract

Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of vegetable crops. It has high economic value and high consumption volume in Indonesia. Indonesia population pepper consumption were reached 4 kg/capita/year (Saptana et al, 2008). Based on data of Badan Pusat Statistik dan Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura (2016) show that national pepper productivity decrease in 2015 to 2016 by 0.18%. One cause of pepper productivity decrease is Phytophthora capsici Leon. The pathogen causes Phytophthora stem rot disease. Disease control such as chemical method are not reduce P. capsici pathogens. Resistant varieties is alternative solution to prevent reduction of yields due to P. capsici pathogens. There is no pepper varieties that has high production and resistant to P.capsici. The first step to get resistant varieties is crossing between high production genotype and resistant genotype. The introgression or alleles incorporation of P.capsici resistance genes occur during by crossing. Resistant genotype as the determine of P.capsici resistance introgression in their offspring. Therefore, the crossing and resistance effectiveness to P.capsici should be known. The research aims are determine of crossing combination effectiveness between resistant and susceptible parents, determine the effectiveness of resistant parents who resistant introgression and determine the sensitivity of susceptible parents to Phytophthora stem rot disease. The research hypothesis are crossing between CM334 and TB1.10.2.27 is effetive, CM334 as resistance source is most effective parents to be used pepper resistant introgression of Phytophthora stem rot and CJ19 is the most sensitive parents of Phytophthora stem rot disease. Research was conducted from January to October 2017 at Experimental Garden of PT. BISI International Tbk Ngroto Village, Pujon, Malang. The tool used during the crossing were tweezers, germinator, dryer, EC meters, pH meters, planting pots, spray tanks, cutter, staplers, scissors, rules, pen marker, pencil, pen, notebook and camera. The tools used during screening resistant were seedling tray, autoclaf, 2 liter’s sprayer, bucket, and syringe. The materials used were three resistant parent lines, CM334 and two double haploid from PI201238 which are PR10.3.3.6 and PR10.3.4.24 form Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) and two susceptible parent lines double haploid, TB1.10.2.27 and CJ19 from PT. BISI International, Tbk and F1 and F1 resiprocal crossing. Inoculum used was isolates of P. capsici from the result of a collection of Torong Hamlet, Village Tawangsari, Pujon, Malang. Other materials, namely paper, bathrobe, towel, TSP 10%, Bigest (GA3), cocopeat, cocochip, stakes, ropes stakes, rope, nameplate, &0% alcohol, pollination bag, pollination label, AB-Mix fertilizer and pesticides. The crossing methods used by resiprocal crossing between CM334, PR10.3.3.6, PR10.3.4.24, TB1.10.2.27, and CJ19. All the parent lines were represented by 12 plants. One plant required 10 flowers to be castaed and pollinated. Resistance screening samples from parent lines and F1 generation. The each samples was giving 5 ml inoculum P.capsici or 1 x 104 zoospores. iv Observations were made using single plant method then the data were analyzed using t-test of 5% level. The observations research are divided by crosses and resistance screening. The result of crosses show that using susceptible parents are TB1.10.2.27 and CJ19 as female parent line showed the highest percentage rate are 27.8% and 18.9%. So, the susceptible parents was better used as a female parent of crossing. The crosses using the PR10.3.3.6 and PR10.3.4.24 as male parents show that highest number of seed are 1224 seeds and 815 seeds. So, resistant parents was better used as a male parent of crossing. The offspring (F1) generation which has the potential fruits set and highest number of seeds is TB1.10.2.27 × PR10.3.4.24 dan TB1.10.2.27 × PR10.3.3.6. The resistance screening observation results show that PR10.3.4.24 as very resistant criteria and absolute disease (0.00 ± 0.00) to P. capsici when compared CM334 has moderate susceptible criteria and has disease severity value is 0.27 ± 0.43. TB1.10.2.27 and CJ19 have very susceptible criteria to P. capsici. However, they have different disease severity. TB1.10.2.27 has disease severity value of 1.21 ± 1.05 and CJ19 has disease severity of 3.26 ± 2.81. So, CJ19 is susceptible parent has high susceptible to P.capsici. The cross between TB1.10.2.27 as the female parent and PR10.3.4.24 as the male parent is affective baceuse it has no maternal effect and has heterosis and that cross get produce many fruits and seeds. The reseach conclusions is breeding strategy of Phytophthora stem rot pepper resistance disease is by using susceptible parent of TB1.10.2.27 as female parent and resistant parent of PR10.3.4.24 as male parent because thats cross get many fruits and seeds, no maternal effect and has heterosis. Crossing between CM334 and TB1.10.2.27 is effective but PR10.3.4.24 as male parent and TB1.10.2.27 as female parent is effective, CM334 is not effective resistance parent line but PR10.3.4.24 are effective resistant parent lines in introgression Phytophthora stem rot resistante and CJ19 is the most sensisitive eldest to Phytophthora stem rot disease.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/217/051803537
Uncontrolled Keywords: Efektivitas, Persilangan Tanman Cabai, Phytophthora
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting > 631.52 Production of seeds, bulbs, tubers, new varieties > 631.523 Development of new varieties
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/12288
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